Anthropogenic activity effect on water quality of epikarst spring in the western part of Gunungsewu Karst Area, Java Island, Indonesia


  • Indra Agus Riyanto Department of Geography Information Science, Faculty of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics, Universitas Maha Karya Asia
  • Ahmad Cahyadi Department of Environmental Geography, Faculty of Geography, Universitas Gadjah Mada



anthropogenic pollution, epikarst spring, Gunungsewu karst area, water quality


Epikarst springs are the main source of water used by the community in the western part of Gunungsewu Karst Area. One of the springs found in Gunungsewu karst area is Guntur Spring, with a catchment area that functions as agricultural land and settlements. Guntur Spring has connectivity between swallow holes and karst windows, so the spring can easily be polluted; therefore, a temporal study is needed regarding the water quality. The methods used were analysis of water quality standards, Schoeller diagrams, triangular Piper diagrams, and scatter plots. The results of the analysis of water quality standards showed that only Ca2+ and HCO3- ions and a small portion of Na+ exceeded WHO standards. The results of the Schoeller diagram analysis showed that the dominant ions were Ca2+ and HCO3-. The results of the Piper diagram analysis showed that the Guntur Spring is included in the classification of types I, J, and M, indicating the spring is not polluted. The results of the Piper diagrams showed that Guntur Spring is included in the dominant types of types C, A, G, D, and F, indicating the springs are not included in the polluted category. The scatter plot analysis of the Ca2+ + Mg2+ versus HCO3- + SO42- showed that the dominant ion in the Guntur Spring came from the dissolving of limestone. The scatter plot analysis of HCO3- versus Na+ indicated that the main process that forms Guntur Spring ions is not the dissolving process of silicates. The scatter plot analysis of Cl- - SO42- versus Na+ indicated that the main process that forms Guntur Spring ions is not the dissolving process of sodium/sodium sulfate and halite. There was one sample in the Cl- versus Na+ scatter plot analysis that showed an indication of an anthropogenic pollution. However, the overall analysis showed that anthropogenic activities in the study area do have a major impact on the water quality of the epikarst springs at the study site.


Adji, T.N., Haryono, E., Fatchurohman, H. and Oktama, R. 2017. Spatial and temporal hydrochemistry variations of karst water in Gunung Sewu, Java, Indonesia. Environmental Earth Sciences 76(20):1-16, doi:10.1007/s12665-017-7057-z.

Adji, T.N., Cahyadi, A., Ramadhan, G.S., Haryono, E., Purnama, S., Tastian, N.F., Acitya, R. and Putra, R.D. 2023. Analysis of the impact of anthropogenic activities on the water quality of the Seropan underground river, Gunungsewu Karst Area, Gunungkidul Regency. Jurnal Geografi, Edukasi dan Lingkungan 7(1):1-17 (in Indonesian).

Adji, T.N., Widyastuti, M., Sudarmadji, and Haryono, E. 2005. Identification of contamination recharge area of Bribin-Baron Karst water system, Gunung Sewu, Indonesia. Faculty of Geography, Universitas Gadjah Mada.

Brad, T., Bizic, M., Ionescu, D., Chiriac, C.M., Kenesz, M., Roba, C., Ionescu, A., Fekete, A., Mirea, I.C. and Moldovan, O.T. 2022. Potential for natural attenuation of domestic and agricultural pollution in karst groundwater environments. Water (Switzerland) 14(10), doi:10.3390/w14101597.

Cahyadi, A, Adji, T.N., Haryono, E., Widyastuti, M., Kusuma Aji, A.P., Naufal, M. and Riyanto, I.A. 2020. Temporal variation of tropical karst groundwater suitability for irrigation in Gremeng Resurgence, Gunungsewu Karst area, Indonesia. E3S Web of Conferences 202, doi:10.1051/e3sconf/202020204004.

Cahyadi, A, Haryono, E., Adji, T.N., Widyastuti, M., Riyanto, I.A., Acintya, R. and Qushoyyi, N.F. 2022. Karakteristik hidrogeokimia dan kualitas air pada mataair karst Gunungsewu. Geodika: Jurnal Kajian Ilmu dan Pendidikan Geografi 6(2):175-185, doi:10.29408/geodika.v6i2.6100 (in Indonesian).

Cahyadi, A., Riyanto, I.A., Adji, T.N., Haryono, E., Widyastuti, M. and Aji, A.P.K. 2021. Temporal variations in the water quality of beton spring, Gunungsewu karst area, Indonesia. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 896(1), doi:10.1088/1755-1315/896/1/012014.

Chen, Z., Auler, A.S., Bakalowicz, M., Drew, D., Griger, F., Hartmann, J., Jiang, G., Moosdorf, N., Richts, A., Stevanovic, Z., Veni, G. and Goldscheider, N. 2017. Le programme de la Carte Mondiale des Aquifères Karstiques: concept, procédure de cartographie et carte de l’Europe. Hydrogeology Journal 25(3):771-785, doi:10.1088/1755-1315/896/1/012014.

Fathmawati, F., Fachiroh, J., Sutomo, A.H. and Putra, D.P.E. 2018. Origin and distribution of nitrate in water well of settlement areas in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 190:628, doi:10.1007/s10661-018-6958-y.

Geyer, T., Birk, S., Reimann, T., Dörfliger, N. and Sauter, M. 2013. Differentiated characterization of karst aquifers: Some contributions. Carbonates and Evaporites 28(1-2):41-46, doi:10.1007/s13146-013-0150-9.

Goldscheider, N. 2019. A holistic approach to groundwater protection and ecosystem services in karst terrains. Carbonates and Evaporites 34(4):1241-1249, doi:10.1007/s13146-019-00492-5.

Goldscheider, N., Chen, Z., Auler, A.S., Bakalowicz, M., Broda, S., Drew, D., Hartmann, J., Jiang, G., Moosdorf, N., Stevanovic, Z. and Veni, G. 2020. Global distribution of carbonate rocks and karst water resources. Hydrogeology Journal 28(5):1661-1677, doi:10.1007/s10040-020-02139-5.

Haryono, E., Adji, T.N., Cahyadi, A., Widyastuti, M., Listyaningsih, U. and Sulistyowati, E. 2022. Groundwater and livelihood in Gunungsewu karst area, Indonesia. In: Re,V., Manzione, R.L., Abiye, T.A., Mukherji, A. and MacDonald, A. (eds). Groundwater for Sustainable Livelihoods and Equitable Growth. CRC Press, London., doi:10.1007/s10040-020-02139-5.

Hoaghia, M.A., Moldovan, A., Kovacs, E., Mirea, I.C., Kenesz, M., Brad, T., Cadar, O., Micle, V., Levei, E.A. and Moldovan, O.T. 2021. Water quality and hydrogeochemical characteristics of some karst water sources in Apuseni Mountains, Romania. Water (Switzerland) 13(6), doi:10.3390/w13060857.

Hodgson, F.D.I. 2004. Processing and Presentation of Data. In: Kovalevsky, V.S., Kruseman, G.P. and Rushton, K.R. (eds.), An International Guide for Hydrogeological Investigations. Paris: UNESCO.

Indonesian Government Regulation Number 22. 2021. Concerning water quality management and water pollution control. Deputy Secretary of the Cabinet for Legal Affairs and Legislation, Jakarta (in Indonesian).

Mahrizkhal, D.S., Priambada, A.P., Al-Ghozali, M.Q., Rahmawati, A.I., Cahyadi, A., Haryono, E. and Adji, T.N. 2022. Variation of Saturation Indices (SI cal ) with respect to calcite mineral at Kalisirah and Jumbleng Springs, South Gombong Karst, Central Java, Indonesia. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 1039(1):012001, doi:10.1088/1755-1315/1039/1/012001.

Marín, A.I., Martín Rodríguez, J.F., Barberá, J.A., Fernández-Ortega, J., Mudarra, M., Sánchez, D. and Andreo, B. 2021. Groundwater vulnerability to pollution in karst aquifers, considering key challenges and considerations: application to the Ubrique springs in southern Spain. Hydrogeology Journal 29(1):379-396, doi:10.1007/s10040-020-02279-8.

Massinai, M.A., Massinai, M.F.I. and Syamsuddin, E. 2023. Land subsidence assessment on karst based on resistivity and geotechnical parameters. Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 10(2:4047-4059, doi:10.15243/jdmlm.2023.102.4047.

Merk, M., Goeppert, N. and Goldscheider, N. 2020. Processes controlling spatial and temporal dynamics of spring water chemistry in the Black Forest National Park. Science of the Total Environment 723:137742, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.137742.

Naufal, M., Nugroho Adji, T., Cahyadi, A., Haryono, E., Widyastuti, M., Agus Riyanto, I. and Ramadhan, F. 2020. The estimated rate of karst aquifer development by MRC analysis and flood hydrograph components at Guntur Spring, Gunungsewu Karst Area, Indonesia. E3S Web of Conferences 200(October), doi:10.1051/e3sconf/202020002007.

Pradana, H.A., Novita, E. and Purnomo, B.H. 2022. Simulation for water quality management using system dynamics modeling in the Bedadung Watershed, East Java, Indonesia. Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 9(2):3317-3327, doi:10.15243/ jdmlm.2022.092.3317.

Pratama, A.D., Dwiputra, D.S., Nurkholis, A., Haryono, E., Cahyadi, A., Agniy, R.F. and Adji, T.N. 2021. Factors affecting hydrochemistry of karst springs and their relationship to aquifer development. Environmental Processes 8(4), doi:10.1007/s40710-021-00547-7.

Putra, D.P.E. 2010. Estimation, reality and trend of groundwater nitrate concentration under unsewered area of Yogyakarta City–Indonesia. Journal of South East Asian Applied Geology 2(1):20-27.

Putro, S.D.S. and Wilopo, W. 2022. Assessment of nitrate contamination and its factors in the urban area of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 9(4):3643-3652, doi:10.15243/jdmlm.2022.094.3643.

Ravbar, N. and Å ebela, S. 2015. The effectiveness of protection policies and legislative framework with special regard to karst landscapes: Insights from Slovenia. Environmental Science and Policy 51:106-116, doi:10.1016/j.envsci.2015.02.013.

Ravbar, N. and Kovacic, G. 2015. Vulnerability and protection aspects of some Dinaric karst aquifers: a synthesis. Environmental Earth Sciences 74(1):129-141, doi:10.1007/s12665-014-3945-7.

Richter, D., Goeppert, N., Zindler, B. and Goldscheider, N. 2021. Spatial and temporal dynamics of suspended particles and E. coli in a complex surface-water and karst groundwater system as a basis for an adapted water protection scheme, northern Vietnam. Hydrogeology Journal 29(5):1965-1978, doi:10.1007/s10040-021-02356-6.

Riyanto, I.A., Cahyadi, A., Sismoyo, D., Naufal, M., Ramadhan, F., Widyastuti, M. and Adji, T.N. 2019. Installation of deep groundwater wells as a solution to water resources problem in Panggang Subsystem, Gunungsewu Karst Area, Indonesia. E3S Web of Conferences 125(2019), doi:10.1051/ e3sconf/201912501009.

Riyanto, I.A., Widyastuti, M., Cahyadi, A., Agniy, R.F. and Adji, T.N. 2020. Groundwater management based on vulnerability to contamination in the tropical karst region of Guntur Spring, Gunungsewu Karst, Java Island, Indonesia. Environmental Processes 7(4):1277-1302, doi:10.1007/s40710-020-00460-5.

Riyanto, I.A., Cahyadi, A., Adji, T.N., Haryono, E., Widyastuti, M., Agniy, R.F., Fathoni, W.A., Rahmawati, N. and Baskoro, H. 2018. Conectivity Analisis and characterization of passage using Tracer test in epikarst spring of Panggang Sub System', Gunungsewu Karst Area. Proceeding of Indonesian Hydrogeologist Expert Community Annual meeting pekan ilmiah tahunan perhimpunan ahli airtanah indonesia (PAAI). Bandung: ITB Press, (in Indonesian).

Tastian, N.F., Adji, T.N. and Cahyadi, A. 2022. The effect of allogenic recharge on multi-temporal water quality variations in the Pindul cave underground river, Gunungkidul. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 1098(1), doi:10.1088/1755-1315/1098/1/012049.

Vías, J., Andreo, B., Ravbar, N. and Hötzl, H. 2010. Mapping the vulnerability of groundwater to the contamination of four carbonate aquifers in Europe. Journal of Environmental Management 91(7):1500-1510, doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2010.02.025.

Widyastuti, M., Cahyadi, A., Adji, T.N., Purnama, S., Firizqi, F., Naufal, M., Ramadhan, F. and Irshabdillah, M.R. 2019. Water quality of allogenic rivers in Gunungsewu Karst Area, Gunungkidul regency in dry season. Proceeding of The Third Geography National Seminar. Yogyakarta: Faculty of Geography, Universitas Gadjah Mada (in Indonesian).

Widyastuti, M., Riyanto, I.A., Naufal, M., Ramadhan, F. and Rahmawati, N. 2019. Catchment area analysis of Guntur Karst Spring Gunung Kidul Regency, Java, Indonesia. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science,256(1), doi:10.1088/1755-1315/256/1/012008.

Widyastuti, M., Sudarmadji, S., Sutikno, S. and Hendrayana, H. 2012. Groundwater vulnerability to the contaminant of Ponor's Recharge area in Gunungsewu Karst Area (Case study in Bribin Karst Drainage Basin). Jurnal Manusia dan Lingkungan 19(2):128-142, doi:10.1088/1755-1315/256/1/012008 (in Indonesian).

Wilopo, W., Putra, D.P.E., Fathani, T.F., Widodo, S., Pratama, G.N.I.P., Nugroho, M.S. and Prihadi, W.R. 2022. Identification of subsidence hazard zone by integrating engineering geological mapping and electrical resistivity tomography in Gunung Kidul karst area, Indonesia. Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 9(2):3281-3291, doi:10.15243/ jdmlm.2022.092.3281.

Xanke, J., Ender, A., Grimmeisen, F., Goeppert, N. and Goldscheider, N. 2020. Hydrochemical evaluation of water resources and human impacts on an urban karst system, Jordan. Hydrogeology Journal 28(6):2173-2186, doi:10.1007/s10040-020-02174-2.

Yu, M., Xing, X., Xing, L., Zhao, Z. and Li, C. 2022. Assessment of karst water quality and analysis of pollution sources with a projection pursuit algorithm in Jinan spring area, China. Water Practice and Technology 17(3):763-783, doi:10.2166/wpt.2022.011.

Yu, S., Chae, G., Oh, J., Kim, S., Kim., D. and Yun, S. 2021. Hydrochemical and isotopic difference of spring water depending on flow type in a stratigraphically complex karst area of South Korea. Frontiers in Earth Science 9:712865, doi:10.3389/feart.2021.712865.

Zhang, C., Yan, J., Pei, J. and Jiang, Y. 2011. Hydrochemical variations of epikarst springs in vertical climate zones: a case study in Jinfo Mountain National Nature Reserve of China. Environmental Earth Sciences 63:375-381, doi:10.1007/s12665-010-0708-y.








How to Cite

Riyanto, I. A., & Cahyadi, A. (2023). Anthropogenic activity effect on water quality of epikarst spring in the western part of Gunungsewu Karst Area, Java Island, Indonesia. Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management, 11(1), 4899–4908.



Research Article