Mangrove area degradation and management strategies in Indonesia: A review


  • Westi Utami Doctoral Program of Environmental Science, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Teknika Utara, Pogung, Sinduadi, Mlati, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55284, Indonesia
  • Catur Sugiyanto Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jln. Sosio Humaniora No.1, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
  • Noorhadi Rahardjo Faculty Geography, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Kaliurang, Sekip Utara, Bulaksumur, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia



climate change , land degradation, mangroves, sustainable coastal management


Coastal communities are particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. This study aimed to review the impact of land use change and mangrove degradation on coastal areas and analyze the problems and strategies of mangrove management in Indonesia. Journal data sources were obtained from the Scopus and Google Scholar databases. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) method was used in the study. The results indicate that economic activities such as mining, industry, and ponds are the main cause of mangrove damage, which in turn leads to increased disasters, CO2 emissions, and decreased community income. To address this issue, mangrove management strategies that take into account social, economic, and environmental factors are necessary. Successful mangrove restoration requires increased inclusion, community capacity, budgeting, and stakeholder involvement. Government policies regulating sustainable spatial planning, law enforcement, and institutional frameworks are crucial components of mangrove management. The study's results are expected to serve as the foundation for developing sustainable coastal management strategies that enhance the safety of coastal communities from disasters and improve their welfare.


Abidin, Z., Setiawan, B., Muhaimin, A.W. and Shinta, A. 2021. The role of coastal biodiversity conservation on sustainability and environmental awareness in mangrove ecosystem of Southern Malang, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 22(2):648-658.

Analuddin, K., Armid, A., Ruslin, R., Sharma, S., Kadidae, O.L., Haya, O.M.Y.L., Septiana, A., Rahim, S., McKenzie, R.A. and La Fua, J. 2023. The carrying capacity of estuarine mangroves in maintaining the coastal urban environmental health of Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research 49(3):327-338.

Ardli, E.R., Yuwono, E. and Purwanto, A.D. 2022. Land cover changes and impacts of massive siltation on the mangrove Segara Anakan Lagoon System, Cilacap Indonesia. Journal of Ecological Engineering 23(7):29-41.

Ariestantya, D. and Harini, R. 2019. Developing alternative mangrove ecosystem management scenarios through economic valuation in the coastal area of Jangkaran Village, Kulon Progo Regency, Indonesia. ASEAN Journal on Science and Technology for Development 36(2).

Arifanti, V.B., Sidik, F., Mulyanto, B., Susilowati, A., Wahyuni, T., Subarno, Yulianti, Yuniarti, N., Aminah, A., Suita, E., Karlina, E., Suharti, S., Pratiwi, Turjaman, M., Hidayat, A., Rachmat, H.H., Imanuddin, R., Yeny, I., Darwiati, W., … Novita, N. 2022. Challenges and strategies for sustainable mangrove management in Indonesia: A Review. Forests 13(5).

Azizah, D., Hamidy, R., Mubarak, M., Efriyeldi, E., Muzammil, W., Lestari, F. and Murtini, S. 2021. Index of mangrove health around the ex-bauxite mining area, Tanjungpinang City, Riau Islands Province. E3S Web of Conferences 324.

Dalimunthe, S.A. 2018. Who manages space? Eco-DRR and the local community. Sustainability (Switzerland)10(6):1-18.

Damastuti, E. and de Groot, R. 2019. Participatory ecosystem service mapping to enhance community-based mangrove rehabilitation and management in Demak, Indonesia. Regional Environmental Change 19(1):65-78.

Damastuti, E., de Groot, R., Debrot, A.O. and Silvius, M.J. 2022. Effectiveness of community-based mangrove management for biodiversity conservation: A case study from Central Java, Indonesia. Trees, Forests and People 7(120):100202.

Debrot, A.O., Plas, A., Boesono, H., Prihantoko, K., Baptist, M.J., Murk, A.J. and Tonneijck, F.H. 2022. Early increases in artisanal shore-based fisheries in a Nature-based Solutions mangrove rehabilitation project on the north coast of Java. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 267(July 2021):107761.

Directorate of Coastal and Small Island Utilization. 2023. Mangroves for Our Oceans. (in Indonesian).

Duarte, C.M., Losada, I.J., Hendriks, I.E., Mazarrasa, I. and Marbà, N. 2013. The role of coastal plant communities for climate change mitigation and adaptation. Nature Climate Change 3(11):961-968.

Eddy, S., Milantara, N., Sasmito, S.D., Kajita, T. and Basyuni, M. 2021. Anthropogenic drivers of mangrove loss and associated carbon emissions in South Sumatra, Indonesia. Forests 12(2):1-14.

Faridah-Hanum, I., Latiff, A., Hakeem, K.R. and Ozturk, M. 2014. Mangrove ecosystems of Asia: Status, challenges and management strategies. Mangrove Ecosystems of Asia: Status, Challenges and Management Strategies 1-471.

Feller, I.C., Friess, D.A., Krauss, K.W. and Lewis, R.R. 2017. The state of the world's mangroves in the 21st century under climate change. Hydrobiologia 803(1):1-12.

Firdaus, M., Hatanaka, K. and Saville, R. 2021. Mangrove forest restoration by fisheries communities in Lampung Bay: A study based on perceptions, willingness to pay, and management strategy. Forest and Society 5(2):224-244.

Fitri, A., Basyuni, M., Wati, R., Sulistiyono, N., Slamet, B., Harahap, Z.A., Balke, T. and Bunting, P. 2018. Management of mangrove ecosystems for increasing fisheries production in Lubuk Kertang Village, North Sumatra, Indonesia. AACL Bioflux 11(4):1252-1264.

Gesing, F. 2021. Towards a more-than-human political ecology of coastal protection: coast care practices in Aotearoa New Zealand. Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space 4(2):208-229.

Hasani, Q., Anisa, A., Damai, A.A., Yuliana, D., Yudha, I.G. and Julian, D. 2023. Changes in density level and mangrove land cover on Teluk Pandan Coast, Lampung, Indonesia, after 10 years of community-based management. Biodiversitas 24(7):3735-3742.

Hastuti, A.W., Suniada, K.I. and Islamy, F. 2018. Carbon stock estimation of mangrove vegetation using remote sensing in Perancak Estuary, Jembrana District, Bali. International Journal of Remote Sensing and Earth Sciences 14(2):137.

Hidayat, A. and Dessy, D.R. 2021. Deforestation of the mangrove ecosystem on Tanakeke Island, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis 13(3):441-456 (in Indonesian).

Indonesian Climate Change Trust Fund, 2020,

Katili, A.S., Utina, R., Tamu, Y. and Nusantari, E. 2018. Management of coastal biodiversity based on social-cultural values in constructing conservation character education. Biodiversitas 19(5):1763-1768.

Ke, G.N., Utama, I.K.A.P., Wagner, T., Sweetman, A.K., Arshad, A., Nath, T.K., Neoh, J.Y., Muchamad, L.S. dan Suroso, D.S.A. 2022. Influence of mangrove forests on subjective and psychological wellbeing of coastal communities: Case studies in Malaysia and Indonesia. Frontiers in Public Health 10.

Komiyama, A., Kato, S., Poungparn, S., Sangtiean, T., Maknual, C., Piriyayotha, S., Jintana, V., Prawiroatmodjo, S., Sastrosuwondo, P. and Ogino, K. 2017. Comprehensive dataset of mangrove tree weights in Southeast Asia. Ecological Research 32(1):3.

Kuvaini, A., Hidayat, A., Kusmana, C. and Basuni, S. 2017. Institutional resilience of pesantren in mangrove forest management in Kangean Island, East Java Province, Indonesia. AACL Bioflux 10(6):1475-1482.

Lovapinka, C., Fauzi, A. and Bahtiar, R. 2014. Economic valuation of the impact of changing the function on mangrove land for pond fish cultivation in Desa Tambaksumur, Karawang, West Java. Bonorowo Wetlands 4(June):58-69 (in Indonesian).

Majesty, K.I. and Fadmastuti, M. 2018. Degree of community participation in mangrove resources management as livelihood support in West Java, Indonesia. E3S Web of Conferences 74.

Martuti, N. 2013. Mangrove diversity in the site area Tugurejo, Semarang. Jurnal MIPA Unnes 36(2):113503 (in Indonesian).

Maryantika, N. and Lin, C. 2017. Exploring changes of land use and mangrove distribution in the economic area of Sidoarjo District, East Java using multi-temporal Landsat images. Information Processing in Agriculture, 4(4):321-332.

Mastur, S., Suswati, D. and Hatta, M. 2017. The effect of ameliorants on improvement of soil fertility in post gold mining land at West Kalimantan. Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 4(4):873-880.

Mattah, M., Mattah, P.D.A., Mensah, A., Babanawo, D., Brempong, E., Mensah, J. and Addo, A.K. 2023. Assessment of social factors that promote the vulnerability of communities to coastal hazards in the Volta estuary in Ghana. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 95(March):103896.

Mitra, A. 2013. Climate change and its impact on brackish water fish and fishery. In Sensitivity of Mangrove Ecosystem to Changing Climate.

Mourmouris, A., Le Visage, C. and Snoussi, M. 2016. The way to a regional framework for ICZM In The Mediterranean 2017-2021.112.

Mursyid, H., Daulay, M.H., Pratama, A.A., Laraswati, D., Novita, N., Malik, A. and Maryudi, A. 2021. Governance issues related to the management and conservation of mangrove ecosystems to support climate change mitigation actions in Indonesia. Forest Policy and Economics 133:102622.

Nasreen, M., Hossain, K.M. and Khan, M.M. 2023. Coastal Disaster Risk Management in Bangladesh: Vulnerability and Resilience. Vulnerability and Resilience. Edited by Nasreen, M., Hossain, K.M. and Khan, M.M., Edition1st Edition, Imprint Routledge, London.

Nortey, D.D.N., Aheto, D.W., Blay, J., Jonah, F.E. and Asare, N.K. 2016. Comparative assessment of mangrove biomass and fish assemblages in urban and rural mangrove wetlands in Ghana. Wetlands 36(4):717-730.

Nugraha, A. 2023. Integrated coastal management in the current regional autonomy law regime in Indonesia: context of community engagement. Australian Journal of Maritime and Ocean Affairs 1-20.

Proisy, C., Viennois, G., Sidik, F., Andayani, A., Enright, J.A., Guitet, S., Gusmawati, N., Lemonnier, H., Muthusankar, G., Olagoke, A., Prosperi, J., Rahmania, R., Ricout, A., Soulard, B. and Suhardjono. 2018. Monitoring mangrove forests after aquaculture abandonment using time series of very high spatial resolution satellite images: A case study from the Perancak estuary, Bali, Indonesia. Marine Pollution Bulletin 131(May 2017):61-71.

Ramandey, E., Supriyantono, A., Wurarah, R.N. and Rouw, A. 2023. Conservation-based mangrove forest management strategy in Wosi Manokwari, West Papua Indonesia. World Journal of Advanced Research and Reviews 19(1):415-422.

Ratnasari, D. and Sukojo, B.M. 2018. Analysis of mangrove ecosystem conditions using multitemporal and multilevel satellite image data (Case study: North Coast of Surabaya). Jurnal Teknik ITS 6(2) (in Indonesian).

Rizal, A., Sachoemar, S.I., Aliah, R.S., Haryanti, Susanto, J.P., Muhami, and Sukmadi, I. 2023. Sustainable management of coastal resources in Mentawai Islands District, West Sumatra Province, Indonesia. Geojournal of Tourism and Geosites 46(1):285-292.

Rizki, F., Situmorang, A.D.L., Wau, N., Lubis, M.Z. and Anurogo, W. 2017. Mapping of vegetation and mangrove distribution level in Batam Island using SPOT-5 satellite imagery. Journal of Geoscience, Engineering, Environment, and Technology 2(4):264.

Rudianto, Bintoro, G., Guntur, Swatama, D., Paizar, A.R., Jeremy, L.K., Oktasyah, L. and Purba, C.A. 2022. Integrated model of coastal ecosystem restoration management on the Tamban Beach, Malang Regency, Indonesia. Hunan Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Hunan University Natural Sciences 49(8):120-136.

Rumahorbo, B.T., Hamuna, B. and Keiluhu, H.J. 2020. An assessment of the coastal ecosystem services of Jayapura City, Papua Province, Indonesia. Environmental and Socio-Economic Studies 8(2):45-53.

Rumahorbo, B.T., Keiluhu, H.J. and Hamuna, B. 2019. The economic valuation of mangrove ecosystem in Youtefa Bay, Jayapura, Indonesia. Ecological Questions 30(1):47-54.

Sabrina, A.D., Ramadandhi, A.R., Nur, A.A.I., Lita, N., Sutarno, S., Yap, C.K., Indrawan, M. and Setyawan, A.D. 2023. Sustainability level of mangrove forest management based on RAP-MForest approach in Pancer Cengkrong, Trenggalek District, Indonesia. International Journal of Bonorowo Wetlands 12(2).

Sahputra, E., Harahap, R.H., Wahyuningsih, H. and Utomo, B. 2022. Assessing the sustainability status of mangrove forest ecosystem management by coastal community in Jaring Halus Village, North Sumatra, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23(1):1-9.

Sasmito, S.D., Sillanpaa, M., Hayes, M.A., Bachri, S., Saragi-Sasmito, M.F., Sidik, F., Hanggara, B.B., Mofu, W.Y., Rumbiak, V.I., Hendri, Taberima, S., Suhaemi, Nugroho, J.D., Pattiasina, T.F., Widagti, N., Barakalla, Rahajoe, J.S., Hartantri, H., Nikijuluw, V., … Murdiyarso, D. 2020. Mangrove blue carbon stocks and dynamics are controlled by hydrogeomorphic settings and land-use change. Global Change Biology 26(5):3028-3039.

Spalding, M.D., Ruffo, S., Conservancy, T.N. and Hale, L. 2014. The role of ecosystems in coastal protection: Adapting to climate change and coastal hazards. Ocean and Coastal Management 90:50-57.

Suardana, A.A.M.A.P., Anggraini, N., Nandika, M.R., Aziz, K., As-Syakur, A.R., Ulfa, A., Wijaya, A.D., Prasetio, W., Winarso, G. and Dimyati, R.D. 2023. Estimation and mapping above-ground mangrove carbon stock using sentinel-2 data derived vegetation indices in Benoa Bay of Bali Province, Indonesia. Forest and Society 7(1):116-134.

Sukarna, R.M. and Syahid, Y. 2015. FCD application of Landsat for monitoring mangrove in Central Kalimantan. Indonesian Journal of Geography 47(2):160-170.

Sumarmi, S., Purwanto, P. and Bachri, S. 2021. Spatial analysis of mangrove forest management to reduce air temperature and CO2 emissions. Sustainability (Switzerland) 13(14).

Susilo, H., Takahashi, Y., Sato, G., Nomura, H. and Yabe, M. 2018. The adoption of silvofishery system to restore mangrove ecosystems and its impact on farmers' income in Mahakam Delta, Indonesia. Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University 63(2):433-442.

Suyadi, S., Naroli, I. and Sitepu, A.B. 2021. Characteristics of mangrove vegetation and its utilization: a case study from East Seram, Maluku. Jurnal Kelautan dan Perikanan Terapan 4(1):37 (in Indonesian).

Taberima, S., Junaedi, E., Sarwom, R., Lindongi, L.E. and Mulyanto, B. 2020. The acid mine drainage (AMD) impact of tailings and non-tailings on the ecosystem changes in the ModADA sedimentation area, Timika. Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management, 7(2):2085-2094.

Takagi, H. and Heidarzadeh, M. 2023. Coastal disasters in Asia: forecasting, uncovering, recovering, and mitigation. Coastal Engineering Journal 65(1):1-2.

Takagi, H., Mikami, T., Fujii, D., Esteban, M. and Kurobe, S. 2016. Mangrove forest against dyke-break-induced tsunami on rapidly subsiding coasts. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 16(7):1629-1638.

Utami, T.N., Fattah, M. and Intyas, C.A. 2022. The system dynamic of mangrove ecotourism of "Kampung Blekok" Situbondo East Java Indonesia: economic and ecological dimension. Environmental Research, Engineering and Management 78(2):58-72.

Utami, W., Wibowo, Y.A., Hadi, A.H. and Permadi, F.B. 2021. The impact of mangrove damage on tidal flooding in the subdistrict of Tugu, Semarang, Central Java. Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 9(1):3093-3105.

van Bijsterveldt, C.E.J., van Wesenbeeck, B.K., van der Wal, D., Afiati, N., Pribadi, R., Brown, B. and Bouma, T.J. 2020. How to restore mangroves for greenbelt creation along eroding coasts with abandoned aquaculture ponds. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 235(January):106576.

van Oudenhoven, A.P.E., Siahainenia, A.J., Sualia, I., Tonneijck, F.H., van der Ploeg, S., de Groot, R.S., Alkemade, R. and Leemans, R. 2015. Effects of different management regimes on mangrove ecosystem services in Java, Indonesia. Ocean and Coastal Management 116:353-367.

Wardhani, M.K., Rosyid, D.M. and Armono, H.D. 2022. Land use change of mangrove forest for eco-tourism in the South Coastal, Bangkalan, East Java-Indonesia. International Journal of GEOMATE 23(98):136-146.

Yamindago, R.I.A. 2015. Restoring coastal ecosystems - a case study Malang and Gresik Regency, Indonesia. Journal of Coastal Conservation 19(2):119-130.

Yin, S., Yang, X. and Chen, J. 2020. Adaptive behavior of farmers' livelihoods in the context of human-environment system changes. Habitat International 100(July 2019):102185.

Yistiarani, W.D. 2020. Life of coastal communities in Indonesia. BALAIRUNG: Jurnal Multidisipliner Mahasiswa Indonesia 2(1):6-12 (in Indonesian).








How to Cite

Utami, W., Sugiyanto, C., & Rahardjo , N. (2024). Mangrove area degradation and management strategies in Indonesia: A review. Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management, 11(3), 6037–6047.