Assessing how changes in land use affect runoff and water quality in Palembang, South Sumatra, Indonesia


  • Maulana Yusuf Doctoral Program of Environmental Science, Graduate School, University Sriwijaya, Jl. Padang Selasa No.524, Bukit Besar Palembang, South Sumatra, Indonesia
  • Nurhayati Damiri Doctoral Program of Environmental Science, Graduate School, University Sriwijaya, Jl. Padang Selasa No.524, Bukit Besar Palembang, South Sumatra, Indonesia
  • Ardiyan Saptawan Faculty of Social and Political Science, Universitas Sriwijaya, Jl. Raya Palembang-Prabumulih Km 32, Indralaya, Ogan Ilir 30662, South Sumatra, Indonesia
  • Syafrul Yunardy South Sumatra Provincial Forestry Office, Jl. Kol. H. Burlian Punti Kayu Km. 6,5, Palembang, South Sumatera, Indonesia



assessment, land use change, runoff, water quality


The concerns about the conversion of swamp land into settlements and its effect on the quality of river water are urgent in Indonesia as a developing country. This research evaluated how changes in land use in the Keramasan region of Palembang, South Sumatra, affect the water quality of the Pedado River. Physical, chemical, and microbiological characteristics of the water were gathered in 2017 and 2022 from four monitoring points along the Pedado River. Pollution indicators were used to evaluate the state of river water quality. The results showed that land conversion operations increased flow from the mainland into the Pedado River and the loss of swamp vegetation. One such activity in 2022 was the backfilling of 42.92 hectares of swampland. Total suspended solids (TSS), copper (Cu), oil, and fat in the Pedado River surpassed the quality limits of class II, according to Government Regulation of the Republic of Indonesia Number 82 of 2001, based on measurements of the water quality in the Keramasan region. The Pedado River's water pollution status changed from mildly contaminated in 2017 (pollution index: 3.728-4.940) to moderately polluted in 2022 (pollution index: 5.395-6.236). These results highlight the critical need for thorough water treatment and preventative actions to lessen further contamination in the Pedado River.


Bonacina, L., Fasano, F., Mezzanotte, V. and Fornaroli, R. 2022. Effects of water temperature on freshwater macroinvertebrates: a systematic review. Biological Reviews 98(1):191-221.

Chrisendo, D., Krishna, V.V., Siregar, H. and Qaim, M. 2020. Land-use change, nutrition, and gender roles in Indonesian farm households. Forest Policy and Economics 118:102245.

Donatti, C.I., Andrade, A., Cohen-Shacham, E., Fedele, G., Hou-jones, X. and Rabyn, B. 2022. Ensuring that nature-based solutions for climate mitigation address multiple global challenges. One Earth 5(5):493-504.

Foelske, L., van Riper, C. J., Stewart, W., Ando, A., Gobster, P. and Hunt, L. 2019. Assessing preferences for growth on the rural-urban fringe using a stated choice analysis. Landscape and Urban Planning 189:396-407.

Hack, J., Molewijk, D. and Beißler, M.R. 2020. A conceptual approach to modeling the geospatial impact of typical Urban threats on the habitat quality of river corridors. Remote Sensing 12(8):1-22.

Howladar, M., Farhad, A., Numanbakth, M.D.A. and Faraque, M.O. 2017. An application of water quality index (WQ1) and multivariate statistics to evaluate the water quality around the Maddapara mining industrial area, Dinajpur, Bangladesh. Environmental Systems Research 6:13.

Ibrahim, T.T., Othman, F. and Mahmood, N. 2017. Assessment of water quality of Sembilang River receiving effluent from controlled municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in Selangor. IOP Conference Series: Material Science Engineering 210:12019.

Kelley, C.D., Krolick, A., Brunner, L., Burklund, A., Kahn, D., Ball, W.P. and Weber-Shirk, M. 2014. An affordable open-source turbidimeter. Sensors 14(4):7142-7155.

Khatri, N. and Tyagi, S. 2015. Influences of natural and anthropogenic factors on surface and groundwater quality in rural and urban areas. Frontiers in Life Science 8(1):23-39.

Kingsford, R.T., Basset, A. and Jackson, L. 2016. Wetland: Conservation's poor causes. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 26(5):892-916.

Kunz, Y., Steinebach, S., Dittrich, C., Hauser-Schäublin, B., Rosyani, I., Soetarto, E. and Faust, H. 2017. The fridge in the forest: Historical trajectories of land tenure regulations fostering landscape transformation in Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. Forest Policy and Economics 81(5):1-9.

Liu, W., Ma, L., Li, Y., Abuduwali, J. and Uula, S.A. 2020. Heavy metal and related human health risk assessment for river waters in Issyk-kul Basin, Krygystan, Central Asia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17(10):3506.

Madishona, E. and Knight, J. 2022. Inland wetlands in Africa: A review of their typologies and ecosystem services. Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment 46(4):547-565.

Maltby, E. 2022. The wetland paradigm shift in response to changing social priorities: A reflective review. Land 22:1526.

Maulud, K.N.A., Fitri, A., Mohtar, W.H.M.W., Jaafar, W.S.WM., Zuhairi, N.Z. and Kamarudin, M.K.A. 2021. A study of spatial and water quality index during dry and rainy seasons at Kelantan River Basin, Peninsular Malaysia. Arabian Journal of Geosciences 14(2).

Moeis, F.R., Dartanto, T., Moeis, J.P. and Ikhsan, M. 2020. A longitudinal study of agriculture households in Indonesia: The effect of land and labor mobility on welfare and poverty households in Indonesia: The effect of land and labor mobility on welfare and poverty dynamics. World Development Perspectives 20(2020):100261.

Mohammed, R. and Al-Obaidi, B. 2021. Treatability influence of municipal sewage effluent on surface water quality assessment based on Nemerow pollution index using an artificial neural network. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 877 (2021):012008.

Müller, A., Österlund, H., Marsalek, J. and Viklander, M. 2020. The pollution conveyed by urban runoff: A review of sources. Science of The Total Environment 709 (2020):13125.

Nazeer, S., Hashmi, M.Z. and Malik, R.N. 2014. Heavy metal distribution, risk assessment and water quality characterization by water quality index of River Soan, Pakistan. Ecological Indicators 43:262-270.

Nguyen, D.T., Iskandar, I. and Ho, S. 2016. Land cover change and the CO2 stock in Palembang City, Indonesia: A study using remote sensing, GIS technique and LUMENs. Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Science 19(2):313-321.

Nienie, A.B., Sivalingam, P., Laffite, A., Ngelinkoto, P., Otamonga, J.P., Matand, A., Mulaji, C.K., Mubedi, J.I., Mpiana, P.T. and Poté, J. 2017. Seasonal variability of water quality by physicochemical indexes and traceable metals in the suburban area in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo. International Soil and Water Conservation Research,5(2):158-165.

Osman, S., Chen, L., Mohammad, A.H., Xing, L. and Chen, Y. 2021. Flood modeling of Sungai Pinang Watershed under the impact of urbanization. Tropical Cyclone Research and Review 10(2):96-105.

Palembang City Regional Regulation No.11 of 2012. Development of control and use of swamps. Regional Secretary of Palembang City, 2012 (in Indonesian).

Prabowo, D., Maryudi, A., Senawi. and Imron, M.A. 2017. Conversion of forests into oil palm plantations in West Kalimantan, Indonesia: Insights from actors' power and its dynamics. Forest Policy and Economics 78:32-39.

Prasad, A., Gray, C.B., Ross, A. and Kano, M. 2016. Metrics in urban health: Current developments and future prospects. Annual Review of Public Health 37:113-133.

Purnomo, H., Shantiko, B., Sitorus, S., Gunawan, H., Achdiawan, R., Kartodihardjo, H. and Dewayani, A. A. 2017. Fire economy and actor network of forest and land fires in Indonesia. Forest Policy and Economics 78:21-31.

Rahimi, L., Malekmohammadi, B. and Yavari, A.R. 2020. Assessing and modeling the impacts of wetland land cover changes on water provision and habitat quality ecosystem services. Natural Resources Research 29(6): 3701-3718.

Retallack, M. 2021. The intersection of economic demand for ecosystem services and public policy: A watershed case study exploring implications for social-ecological resilience. Ecosystem Service 50(Agustus 2021):101322.

Schellenberg, T., Subramanian, V., Ganeshan, G., Tompkins, D. and Pradeep, R. 2020. Wastewater discharge standards in the evolving context of urban sustainability-The case of India. Frontiers in Environmental Science 8:30.

Sharifi, A. 2021. Co-benefits and synergies between urban climate change mitigation and adaptation measures: A literature review. Science of The Total Environment, 750:141642.

Shi, P., Zhang, Y., Li, Z., Li, P. and Xu, G. 2017. Influence of land use and land cover patterns on seasonal water quality at multi-spatial scales. Catena 151:182-190.

Sieben, E.J.J., Collins, N.B., Kotze, D.C., Mofutsanyana, S.S. and Janks, M. 2017. Temperate grassy wetlands of South Africa: Description, classification and explanatory environmental factors. South African Journal of Botany 113: 68-76.

Singh, U.K. and Kumar B. 2017. Pathways of heavy metals contamination and associated human helath risk in Ajay River Basin, India. Chemosphere 174:183-199.

Stefanakis, A.I. 2019. The role of constructed wetlands as green infrastructure for sustainable urban water management. Sustainability11(24):6981.

Susilowati, S., Sutrisno, J., Masykuri, M. and Maridi, M. 2018. Dynamics and factors that affect DO-BOD concentrations of Madiun River. AIP Conference Proceedings 2049, 020052-1-010052-6.

Sweeney, B.W., Funk, D.H., Camp, A.A., Buchwalter, D.B. and Jackson, J.K. 2018. Why adult mayflies of Cloeon dipterum (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) become smaller as temperature warms. Freshwater Science 37:64-81.

Taiwo, A.M., Aigbodion, C.O., Ojekunle, O.Z. and Akinhanmi, T.F. 2020. Health risk assessment of metal in selected drinks from Obeokuta, Southwestern Nigeria. Biological Trace Element Research 197(2):694-707.

Tanaka, M.O., de Souza, A.L.T., Moschini, L.E. and de Oliveira, A.K. 2016. Influence of watershed land use and riparian characteristics on biological indicators of stream water watershed land use and riparian characteristics on biological indicators of stream water quality in South Eastern Brazil. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment,216:333-339.

Walker, D.B., Baumgartner, D.J., Gerba, C.P. and Fitzsimmons, K. 2019. Surface Water Pollution. In Environmental and Pollution Science (3rd ed.). Elsevier Inc.

Wright, M.S.P., Santelmann, M.V., Vaché, K.B. and Hulse, D.W. 2021. Modeling the impact of development policies and climate on suburban watershed hydrology near Portland, Oregon. Lanscape and Urban Planning, 124:104133.

Xiao, L., Zhang, Y., Li, P., Xu, G., Shi, P. and Zhang, Y. 2019. Effects of freeze-thaw cycles on aggregate-associated organic carbon and glomalin-related soil protein in natural- succession grassland and Chinese pine forest on the Loess Plateau. Geoderma 334:1-8.

Xie T., Cui, B. and Li, S. 2017. Analysing how plants in coastal wetlands respond to varying tidal regimes throughout their life cycles. Marine Pollution Bulletin 123(1-2):113-121.

Xu, G., Li, P., Lu, K., Tantai, Z., Zhang, J., Ren, Z. and Wang, X. 2019. Catena Seasonal changes in water quality and its main influencing factors in the Dan River basin. Catena 173:131-140.

Xu, T., Weng, B., Yan, D., Wang, K., Li, X., Bi, W., Li, M., Cheng, X. and Liu, Y. 2019. Wetlands of international importance: Status, threats, and future protection. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16(10).

Xu., D., Zhu, D., Deng, Y., Sun, Q., Ma, J. and Liu, F. 2023. Evaluation and empirical study of Happy River on the basis of AHP: a case study of Shaoxing City (Zhejiang, China). Marine and Freshwater Research 74(10).

Ye, S., Pei, L., He, L., Xie, L., Zhao, G., Yuan, H., Ding, X., Pei, S., Yang, S., Li, X. and Laws, E. A. 2022. Wetlands in China: evolution, carbon sequestrations and services, threats, and preservation/restoration. Water 14(7).

Zhang, Q., Xu, P. and Qian, H. 2020. Groundwater quality assessment using improve water improved water quality index (WQ1) and human health risk (HHR) evaluation in a semi-arid region of northwest China. Expo Health 12:487-500.

Zhou Y, Wang X, Li W, Zhou S. and Jiang L. 2023. Water quality evaluation and pollution source apportionment of surface water in a major city in South East China using multi-statistical analyses and machine learning models. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 20:881.








How to Cite

Yusuf, M., Damiri, N., Saptawan, A., & Yunardy, S. (2024). Assessing how changes in land use affect runoff and water quality in Palembang, South Sumatra, Indonesia. Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management, 11(3), 5683–5694.



Research Article