Mapping heavy metals accumulation in conventional rice farming system at Banyumas Regency of Central Java, Indonesia


  • Yugi R Ahadiyat Laboratory of Agroecology, Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman
  • Ahmad Fauzi Laboratory of Agroecology, Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman
  • Okti Herliana Laboratory of Agroecology, Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman
  • Sapto Nugroho Hadi Laboratory of Agroecology, Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman



bioaccumulation, heavy metal, pollution index, rice


Rice grains produced in the conventional system are a prime source of heavy metal exposure in the human body leading to various health problems. The objective of this study was to assess heavy metals concentration in soil and rice grain under the conventional rice farming system in Banyumas, Indonesia, the pollution index, and the bioaccumulation factor. There were thirty-seven samples collected based on soil type, elevation, and irrigation system. The heavy metals level in soil ranged from 2.7 to 39.92 ppm of Pb, 0.11 to 3.01 ppm of Cd, and 4.79 to 61.32 ppm of Cr. Pb and Cr accumulation levels were below the maximum permissible concentration (MPC). A different result in Cd exceeded the MPC in 56.75% of sampling sites. Rice grain showed a high accumulation in Pb (6.85 ppm) and Cr (5.73 ppm) that exceeds the maximum standard. Cd exceeded 24.32% of sampling sites with an average of 0.54 ppm. The Pollution Index (PI) was medium in Cd and low in Pb and Cr. The Bioaccumulation Factor (BAF) of heavy metals in rice was Cd>Pb>Cr with averages of 0.64, 0.53, and 0.30, respectively. A high correlation resulted in Pb and Cd in soils and rice grains. Remediation is must done to reduce the heavy metals accumulation in soils and rice grains for environmental and health safety to prevent further contamination.


Amelia, R.A., Rachmadiarti, F. and Yuliani. 2015. Analysis of heavy metal levels of Pb and growth of rice plants in the rice fields of Dusun Betas, Kapulungan Village, Gempol-Pasuruan. LenteraBio 4(3):187-191 (in Indonesian).

Amin, S.N.S M., Azid, A., Khalit, S.I., Samsudin, M.S. and Yusof, K.M.K.K. 2019. The association of heavy metals concentration in air and health risk assessment in Paka, Malaysia. Malaysian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Special Issue on International Conference on Agriculture, Animal Sciences and Food Technology (ICAFT 2018):346-349, doi:10.11113/mjfas.v15n2-1.1561.

Atwood, D. and Paisley-Jones, C. 2017. Pesticides Industry Sales and Usage 2008-2012. US Environmental Protection Agency. 32p.

Bauer, H.H., Christian, G.D. and O’Reilly, J.E. 1978. Instrumental Analysis. Allyn and bacon, Inc. Boston. 844p.

BPOM. 2022. Requirements for heavy metal contamination in processed food. BPOM Republic of Indonesia. 18p. (in Indonesian).

BPS Indonesia. 2021. Statistical year book of Indonesia 2021 (Directorate of Statistical Dissemination, Ed.). BPS Statistics Indonesia (in Indonesian).

BPS Jawa Tengah. 2021. Jawa Tengah Province in Figures. BPS Statistics of Jawa Tengah Province (in Indonesian).

BPS Kabupaten Banyumas. 2021. Banyumas Regency in Figures. BPS Statistics of Regency of Banyumas (in Indonesian).

Budianta, D., Napoleon, A. and Bolan, N. 2016. Heavy Metals in Indonesian paddy soils. In: Almayyahi, B.A. (ed.), Heavy Metals-Recent Advance, pp. 1-18. Intercopen.

Ekere, N.R., Ugbor, M.C.J., Ihedioha, J.N., Ukwueze, N.N. and Abugu, H.O. 2020. Ecological and potential health risk assessment of heavy metals in soils and food crops grown in abandoned urban open waste dumpsite. Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering 18:711-721, doi:10.1007/s40201-020-00497-6.

Fang, B. and Zhu, X. 2014. High content of five heavy metals in four fruits: Evidence from a case study of Pujiang County, Zhejiang Province, China. Food Control 39(1):62-67, doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2013.10.039.

Faroon, A., Ashizawa, A., Wright, S., Tucker, P., Jenkins, K., Ingerman, L. and Rudisill, C. 2012. Toxicological profile for Cadmium. US Department of Health and Human Services, Georgia. 487p.

Guo, B., Hong, C., Tong, W., Xu, M., Huang, C., Yin, H., Lin, Y. and Fu, Q. 2020. Health risk assessment of heavy metal pollution in a soil-rice system: a case study in the Jin-Qu Basin of China. Scientific Reports 10:11490, doi:10.1038/s41598-020-68295-6.

Gupta, N., Yadav, K.K., Kumar, V., Cabral-Pinto, M.M.S., Alam, M., Kumar, S. and Prasad, S. 2021. Appraisal of contamination of heavy metals and health risk in agricultural soil of Jhansi city, India. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 88:103740, doi:10.1016/j.etap.2021.103740.

Handayani, C.O., Sukarjo, S. and Dewi, T. 2022. Assessment of heavy metal contamination levels on agricultural land in the upper Citarum River, West Java. Jurnal Ilmu Lingkungan 20(3):508-516, doi:10.14710/jil.20.3.508-516 (in Indonesian).

IFS. 2019. General standard for contaminants and toxin in food and feed. FAO and WHO. 66p.

Kabata-Pendias, A. 2011. Trace Elements in Soils and Plants. 1st edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton. Florida. USA. 505p, doi:10.1201/b10158.

Kazapoe, R. and Arhin, E. 2021. Determination of local background and baseline values of elements within the soils of the Birimian Terrain of the Wassa Area of Southwest Ghana. Geology, Ecology, and Landscapes 5(3):199-208, doi:10.1080/24749508.2019.1705644.

Khan, M.U., Malik, R.N. and Muhammad, S. 2013. Human health risk from Heavy metal via food crops consumption with wastewater irrigation practices in Pakistan. Chemosphere 93(10):2230-2238, doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.07.067.

Komarawidjadja, W. 2017. Exposure to industrial liquid waste containing heavy metals in paddy fields in Jelegong Village, Rancaekek District, Bandung Regency. Jurnal Teknologi Lingkungan 18(2):173-181, doi:10.29122/jtl.v18i2.2047 (in Indonesian).

Kong, X., Liu, T., Yu, Z., Chen, Z., Lei, D., Wang, Z., Zhang, S., Zhang, H. and Li, Q. 2018. Heavy metal bioaccumulation in rice from a high geological background area in Guizhou Province, China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15(10):1-14, doi:10.3390/ijerph15102281.

Kusumaningrum, H., Herusugondo, Zainuri, M. and Raharjo, B. 2012. Analysis of cadmium content in onion at Tegal. Jurnal Sains dan Matematika 20(4):98102 (in Indonesian).

Laoli, B.M.S., Kisoro, and Raharjo, D. 2021. Accumulation of Chromium (Cr) contamination in rice plants along the Opak river basin, Bantul Regency. Biospecies, 14(1):59-66. (in Indonesian).

Manurung, M., Setyo, Y. and Suandewi, N.P.N.R. 2018. Accumulation of heavy metal chromium (Cr) in potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L.) due to the application of pesticides, organic fertilizers and their combinations. Jurnal Kimia 12(2):165-172, doi:10.24843/JCHEM.2018.v12.i02.p12 (in Indonesian).

Mariyono, J., Kuntariningsih, A., Suswati, E. and Kompas, T. 2018. Quantity and monetary value of agrochemical pollution from intensive farming in Indonesia. Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal 29(4):759-779, doi:10.1108/MEQ-03-2017-0030.

Meharg, A.A., Norton, G., Deacon, C., Williams, P., Adomako, E.E., Price, A., Zhu, Y., Li, G., Zhao, F.J., McGrath, S., Villada, A., Sommella, A., de Silva, P.M.C.S., Brammer, H., Dasgupta, T. and Islam, M.R. 2013. Variation in rice cadmium related to human exposure. Environmental Science and Technology 47(11):5613-5618, doi:10.1021/es400521h.

Merismon, Budianta, D., Napoleon, A. and Hermansyah. 2017. The contamination of Pb and Cd in the internsive paddy field at Musi Rawas Regency, South Sumatera-Indonesia. Pollution Research 36(3):1-6.

Norton, G.J., Williams, P.N., Adomako, E.E., Price, A.H., Zhu, Y., Zhao, F.J., McGrath, S., Deacon, C.M., Villada, A., Sommella, A., Lu, Y., Ming, L., de Silva, P.M.C.S., Brammer, H., Dasgupta, T., Islam, M.R. and Meharg, A.A. 2014. Lead in rice: Analysis of baseline lead levels in market and field collected rice grains. Science of the Total Environment 485:428-434, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.03.090.

Shi, Z., Carey, M., Meharg, C., Williams, P.N., Signes-Pastor, A.J., Triwardhani, E.A., Pandiangan, F.I., Campbell, K., Elliott, C., Marwa, E.M., Jiujin, X., Farias, J.G., Nicoloso, F.T., de Silva, P.M.C.S., Lu, Y., Norton, G., Adomako, E., Green, A.J., Moreno-Jiménez, E., … Meharg, A.A. 2020. Rice Grain Cadmium Concentrations in the Global Supply-Chain. Exposure and Health 12(4):869-876, doi:10.1007/s12403-020-00349-6.

SNI. 2009. Maximum limit of heavy metal contamination in food. National Standardization Agency. Jakarta. 29p (in Indonesian).

Suastawan, G., Sastrawidana, I.D.K. and Wirantini, N.M. 2015. Analysis of Pb and Cd metals in vegetable plantation soil in Pancasari Village. Jurnal Wahana Matematika dan Sains 9(2):44-51 (in Indonesian).

Sutrisno and Kuntyastuti, H. 2015. Management of cadmium contamination on agricultural land in Indonesia. Bulentin Palawija 13(1):83-91 (in Indonesian).

Tatahmentan, M., Nyachoti, S., Scott, L., Phan, N., Okwori, F.O., Felemban, N. and Godebo, T.R. 2020. Toxic and essential elements in rice and other grains from the United States and other countries. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17(21):1-12, doi:10.3390/ijerph17218128.

Usman, K., Al-Ghouti, M.A. and Abu-Dieyeh, M.H. 2019. The assessment of cadmium, chromium, copper, and nickel tolerance and bioaccumulation by shrub plant Tetraena qataranse. Scientific Reports 9:5658, doi:10.1038/s41598-019-42029-9.

Vodyanitskii, Yu.N. 2016. Standards for the contents of heavy metals in soils of some states. Annals of Agrarian Science 14(3):257-263, doi:10.1016/ j.aasci.2016.08.011.

Willer, H. and Lernoud, J. 2019. The World of Organic Agriculture Statistics and Trends 2019. IFOAM.

Woolsey, M. and Bugang, W. 2010. Peoples Republic of National Food Safety Standard-Maximum Levels of Contaminants. Global Agricultural Information Network. 13p.








How to Cite

Ahadiyat, Y. R., Fauzi, A., Herliana, O., & Hadi, S. N. (2023). Mapping heavy metals accumulation in conventional rice farming system at Banyumas Regency of Central Java, Indonesia. Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management, 10(4), 4583–4592.



Research Article

Most read articles by the same author(s)