Application of cow manure and Gliricidia sepium pruning compost to improve physical properties of Ultisols and soybean yield


  • Zurhalena Zurhalena Agroecotechnology Department, Agriculture Faculty, Universitas Jambi
  • Endriani Endriani Agroecotechnology Department, Agriculture Faculty, Universitas Jambi
  • Yulfita Farni Agroecotechnology Department, Agriculture Faculty, Universitas Jambi
  • Najla Anwar Fuadi Agroecotechnology Department, Agriculture Faculty, Universitas Jambi



Ultisols, Compost, Cow Manure, Gliricidia pruning, Soybean


Ultisols have considerable potential in developing agricultural cultivation, but in their management, they face several obstacles, including physical properties that do not adequately support plant growth. The low content of soil organic matter causes poor soil physical properties. Low organic matter content leads to low soil aggregate stability, obstructing pore distribution and infiltration so the soil can easily become compacted. This study aimed to observe the changes in some physical properties of the soil due to the application of cow manure and Gliricidia sepium pruning compost and its effect on the yield of soybean plants. This study used a randomized block design with five treatments, namely, K0 (without cow manure-Gliricidia compost), K1 (5 t ha-1cow manure-Gliricidia compost), K2 (10 t ha-1cow manure-Gliricidia compost), K3 (15 t ha-1cow manure-Gliricidia compost), and K4 (20 t ha-1cow manure-Gliricidia compost). The results showed that the 15 t ha-1 cow manure-Gliricidia compost was the best dose in improving the total pore space and penetration resistance of the soil studied. The application of 15 t ha-1cow manure-Gliricidia compost significantly increased soybean yield, reaching 2.97 t ha-1.


Adekiya, A.O., Ojeniyi. S.O. and Owonifari, O.E. 2016. Effect of cow dung on soil physical properties, growth and yield of maize (Zea mays) in a tropical Alfisol. Scientia Agriculturae 15(2):374-379, doi:10.15192/PSCP.SA.2016.15.2.374379.

Angst, G., Mueller, K.E., Kögel-Knabner, I., Freeman, K.H. and Mueller, C.W. 2017. Aggregation controls the stability of lignin and lipids in clay-sized particulate and mineral associated organic matter. Biogeochemistry 132:307-324, doi:10.1007/s10533-017-0304-2.

BPN Jambi Province. 2010. Area and Soil Type of Jambi Province (in Indonesian).

Cambardella, C.A., Richard, T.L. and Russel, A. 2003. Compost mineralization in soil as a function of composting process conditions. European Journal of Soil Biology 39(3):117-127, doi:10.1016/S1164-5563(03)00027-X.

Celik, I. 2005. Land-use effects on organic matter and physical properties of soil in a southern Mediterranean highland of Turkey. Soil and Tillage Research 83:270-277, doi:10.1016/j.still.2004.08.001.

Celik, I., Ortas, I. and Kilic, S. 2004. Effects of compost, mycorrhiza, manure and fertilizer on some physical properties of a chromoxerert soil. Soil and Tillage Research 78:59-67, doi:10.1016/j.still.2004.02.012.

Dariah, A., Sutono, S., Nurida, N.L., Hartatik, and Pertiwi, E. 2015. Soil amendments to increase agricultural land productivity. Jurnal Sumberdaya Lahan 9:67-84, doi:10.21082/jsdl.v9n2.2015.%25p (in Indonesian).

Dunjana, N., Nyamugafata, P., Shumba, A., Nyamangara, J. and Zingore, S. 2012. Effects of cattle manure on selected soil physical properties of smallholder farms on two soils of Murewa. Zimbabwe. Soil Use and Management 28(2), doi:10.1111/j.1475-2743.2012.00394.x.

Endriani. 2010. Physical properties and soil water content due to the application of conservation tillage. Jurnal Hirdolitan 1:26-34 (in Indonesian).

Farni, Y., Suntari, R. and Prijono, S. 2022. Utilization of Tithonia diversifolia and sugarcane leaves to improve soil properties and plant growth on a degraded sandy soil of Malang, East Java. Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 9(2):3227-3236, doi:10.15243/jdmlm.2022.092.3227.

Girmay, G., Singh, B.R., Nyssen, J. and Borrosen, T. 2009. Runoff and sediment-associated nutrient losses under different land uses in Tigray. Northern Ethiopia. Journal of Hydrology 376:70-80, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2009.07.066.

Gyssels, G. and Poesen, J. 2003. The importance of plant root characteristics in controlling concentrated flow erosion rates. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 28(4):371-384, doi:10.1002/esp.447.

Haridjaja, O., Hidayat, Y. and Maryamah, L.S. 2010. The effect of soil bulk density on soil physical properties and germination of peanut and soybean seeds. Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia 15:147-152 (in Indonesian).

Hati, K.M., Mandal, K.G., Misra, A.K., Ghosh, P.K. and Bandyopadhyay, K.K. 2006. Effect of inorganic fertilizer and farmyard manure on soil physical properties, root distribution and water-use efficiency of soybean in Vertisols of central India. Bioresource Technology 97:2182-2188, doi:10.1016/ j.biortech.2005.09.033.

Intara, Y.I., Sapei, A., Erizal, E., Sembiring, N. and Djoefrie, M.H.B. 2011. The effect of adding organic matter to clay and clayey clay on the ability to bind water. Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia 16:130-135 (in Indonesian).

Jahangir, M.M.R., Islam, S., Nitu, T.T., Uddin, U., Kabir, A.K.M.A., Meah, M.B. and Islam, R. 2021. Biocompost based integrated soil fertility management improves post harvest soil structural and elemental quality in a two year conservation agricultural practice. Journal of Agronomy 11(11):1-17, doi:10.3390/agronomy11112101.

Jat, H.S., Datta, A., Choudhary, M., Yadav, A.K., Choudhary, V., Sharma, P.C., Gathala, M.K., Jat, M.L. and McDonald, A. 2019. Effects of tillage. crop establishment and diversification on soil organic carbon, aggregation, aggregate associated carbon and productivity in cereal systems of semi-arid Northwest India. Soil and Tillage Research 190:128-138, doi:10.1016/j.still.2019.03.005.

Jayadi, M. 2009. The effect of gamal leaves liquid organic fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer on the growth of corn plants. Jurnal Agrisistem 5(2):115-122 (in Indonesian).

Jeyaseeli, P., Jeyamangalam, F., Selvaraj, S. and Durai, S.C.V. 2021. Conductivity and particle size measurement in sandy loam soil using organic amendment. Rasayan Journal of Chemistry 14:74-81, doi:10.31788/RJC.2021.1416119.

Kakabouki, I., Folina, A., Efthimiadou, A., Karyadogianni, S., Zisi, C., Kouneli, V., Kapsalis, N.C., Katsenios, N. and Travos, I. 2021. Evaluation of processing tomato pomace after composting on soil properties, yield and quality of processing tomatoes in Greece. Agronomy 11(88):1-15, doi:10.3390/agronomy11010088.

Lerch, T.Z., Dignac, M.F., Thevenot, M., Mchergui, C. and Houot, S. 2019. Chemical changes during composting of plant residues reduce their mineralization in soil and cancel the priming effect. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 136, September 2019:107525, doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2019.107525.

Li, X., Li, F., Zed. R., Zhan, Z. and Singh, B. 2007. Soil physical properties and their relations to organic carbon pools as affected by land use in an alpine pastureland. Geoderma 139:98-105, doi:10.1016/ j.geoderma.2007.01.006.

Lin, Y., Ye, G., Liu, D., Ledgard, S., Luo, J., Yuan, J., Chen, Z. and Ding, W. 2018. Long-term application of lime or pig manure rather than plant residues suppressed diazotroph abundance and diversity and altered community structure in an acidic Ultisol. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 123:218-228, doi:10.1016/ j.soilbio.2018.05.018.

Marques, M.J., Bienes, R., Jiménez, L. and Pérez-Rodríguez, R. 2007. Effect of vegetal cover on runoff and soil erosion under light intensity events. Rainfall simulation over USLE plots. Science of The Total Environment 378:61-65, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2007.01.043.

Martínez, L., López, A.J. and Bellinfante, N. 2008. Seasonal variability of runoff and soil loss on forest road backslopes under simulated rainfall. Catena 74(1):73-79, doi:10.1016/j.catena.2008.03.006.

Masri, Z. and Ryan, J. 2006. Soil organic matter and related physical properties in a Mediterranean wheat-based rotation trial. Soil and Tillage Research 87:146-154, doi:10.1016/j.still.2005.03.003.

Memon, M.S., Guo, J., Tagar, A.A., Perveen, N., Ji, C., Memon, S.A. and Memon, N. 2018. The effects of tillage and straw incorporation on soil organic carbon status. rice crop productivity. and sustainability in the rice-wheat cropping system of Eastern China. Sustainability 2018 10(4):961, doi:10.3390/su10040961.

Meng, L., Ding, W.X. and Cai, Z.C. 2005. Long-term application of organic manure and nitrogen fertilizer on N2O emissions. soil quality and crop production in a sandy loam soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 37:2037-2045, doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2005.03.007.

Murniati, A., Dini, I.R. and Razeka, M. 2022. Utilization of biochar and NPK fertilizer for soybean planting in Ultisol media. International Journal of Science and Research Archive 7:283-291, doi:10.30574/ijsra.2022.7.1.0198.

Muukkonen, P., Hartikainen, H. and Alakukku, L. 2009. Effect of soil structure disturbance on erosion and phosphorus losses from Finnish clay soil. Soil and Tillage Research 103:84-91, doi:10.1016/j.still.2008.09.007.

Nafisah, F., Purwakusuma, W. and Baskoro, D.P.T. 2016. Penetration resistance and soil physical properties in the use of monoculture cultivation land. Scientific Repository. IPB University (in Indonesian).

Ningsih, W.U., Syafria, H. and Akmal, A. 2022. Effectiveness of palm frond compost on crude protein. crude fiber. and ash content of kumpai grass (Hymenachne amplexicaulis (Rudge Nees.) on red-yellow podzolic soil. Jurnal Peternakan Indonesia 24:137-142, doi:10.25077/jpi.24.2.137-142.2022 (in Indonesian).

Nyamangara, J., Gotosa, J. and Mpofu, S.E. 2001. Cattle manure effects on structural stability and water retention capacity of a granitic sandy soil in Zimbabwe. Soil and Tillage Research 62:157-162, doi:10.1016/S0167-1987(01)00215-X.

Olubukola, S.A., Aderemi, O., Tinuke, E.A.D., Akinwunmi, A.H. and Oladipupo, A.J. 2010. Comparing the use of Tithonia diversifolia and compost as soil amandements for growth and yield of Celosia argentea. New York Science Journal 3:133-138.

Pane, C., Spaccini, R., Piccolo, A., Scala, F. and Bonanomi, G. 2011. Compost amendments enhance peat suppressiveness to Pythium ultimum, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia minor. Biological Control 56(2):115-124, doi:10.1016/j.biocontrol.2010.10.002.

Paramananthan, S. 2013. Managing marginal soils for sustainable growth of oil palms in the tropics. Journal Oil Palm and the Environment 4:1-16, doi:10.5366/jope.2013.1.

Paulus, J.M., Najoan, J. and Supit, P.C. 2018. The application of gamal local microorganisms on the growth and production of lowland rice using the method of SRI (System of Rice Intensification). Eugenia 24:9-14, doi:10.35791/eug.24.1.2018.21648 (in Indonesian).

Peng, X., Zhu, Q.H., Xie, Z.B., Darboux, F. and Holden, N.M. 2016. The Impact of manure. straw and biochar amendments on aggregation and erosion in a hillslope Ultisol. Catena 136:30-37, doi:10.1016/j.catena.2015.11.008.

Punitha, M.S., Jeyamangalam, F. and Selvam, V. 2021. The effect of farm yard manure combinations with goat manure and compost manure on yield and nutrient uptake of rice. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering 6:285-290.

Rasoulzadeh, A. and Yaghoubi, A. 2010. Effect of cattle manure on soil physical properties on a sandy clay loam soil in North-West Iran. Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment 8(2):976-979.

Rigane, K.M. and Medhioub, K. 2011. Assessment of properties of Tunisian agricultural waste composts: Application as com- ponents in reconstituted anthropic soils and their effects on tomato yield and quality. Resources. Conservation & Recycling 55:785-792, doi:10.1016/j.resconrec.2011.03.012.

Safria, S., Wahyudi, I. and Ali, R. 2017. Effect of gamal leaf bokashi application on nitrogen uptake and yield of sweet corn (Zea mays Saccarata) on Sidera Entisol. Agroland 243:190-198 (in Indonesian).

Singh, G.. Jalota, S.K. and Singh, Y. 2007. Manuring and residue management effects on physical properties of a soil under the rice-wheat system in Punjab, India. Soil and Tillage Research 94:229-238, doi:10.1016/j.still.2006.07.020.

Soelaeman, Y. and Haryati, U. 2012. Soil physical properties and production of upland Ultisol soil as influenced by manure application and P fertilization. Agrivita Journal of Agriculture Science 34:136-143, doi:10.17503/Agrivita-2012-34-2-p136-143.

Subowo, G. 2010. Strategies for using organic matter efficiently for soil fertility and productivity through empowering soil biological resources. Jurnal Sumberdaya Lahan 1:13-25 (in Indonesian).

Surya, J.A., Nuraini, Y. and Widianto. 2017. Study of soil porosity in the application of several types of organic materials in Robusta coffee plantations. Jurnal Tanah dan Sumberdaya Lahan 4(1):463-471 (in Indonesian).

Syahputra, E., Fauzi, F. and Razali, R. 2015. Characteristics of the chemical properties of the Ultisol sub-group in several areas in North Sumatra. Jurnal Agroteknologi 4:1796-1803 (in Indonesian).

Teka, T.A. 2013. Analysis of the effect of maturity stage on the postharvest biochemical quality characteristics of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit. International Research Journal of Pharmaceutical and Applied Sciences 3:180-186.

Widodo, K.H. and Kusuma, Z. 2018. Effect of compost on soil physical properties and growth of corn plants in Inceptisols. Jurnal Tanah dan Sumberdaya Lahan 5(2):959-967 (in Indonesian).

Yu, G.R., Zhuang, J., Nakayama, K. and Jin, Y. 2007. Root water uptake and profile soil water as affected by vertical root distribution. Plant Ecology 189:15-30, doi:10.1007/s11258-006-9163-y.

Yulnafatmawita, Adrinal, and Anggriani. 2013. Fresh organic matter application to improve aggregate stability of Ultisols under wet tropical region. Journal of Tropical Soils 18:33-44, doi:10.5400/jts.2013.v18i1.33-44.

Zhang, M.K. and Fang, L.P. 2007. Effect of tillage. fertilizer and green manure cropping on soil quality at an abandoned brick making site. Soil and Tillage Research 93:87-93, doi:10.1016/j.still.2006.03.016.

Zulkarnain, M., Prasetya, B. and Soemarno. 2013. The effect of compost. manure. and bio-cost on soil properties. growth and yield of sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) on Entisols in Ngrangkah Pawon. Kediri. The Indonesian Green Technology Journal 2(1):46-52 (in Indonesian).








How to Cite

Zurhalena, Z., Endriani, E., Farni, Y., & Fuadi, N. A. (2023). Application of cow manure and Gliricidia sepium pruning compost to improve physical properties of Ultisols and soybean yield. Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management, 10(3), 4527–4535.



Research Article