Status of groundwater and river water quality around the location of illegal gold mining activities in Lantung District, Sumbawa

Authors

  • Kevin Philips Barakati Master of Environmental Management, Universitas Gadjah Mada
  • Tjahyo Nugroho Adji Faculty of Geography, Universitas Gadjah Mada
  • Noorhadi Rahardjo Faculty of Geography, Universitas Gadjah Mada

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.15243/jdmlm.2023.103.4433

Keywords:

gold mining, groundwater, mercury, pollution, river

Abstract

The Lantung area is one of the places on Sumbawa Island with a large gold deposit. One of the activities of the Lantung people that has the potential to damage the environment is separating gold from mercury. This study aimed to examine the activity of the gold laundering process, and the level of contamination of groundwater and river water due to gold processing from amalgamation by mercury (Hg+) waste. In this study, sampling was carried out for each location, namely two samples of wastewater, six samples of river water, and two samples of groundwater, which were then tested in the laboratory on the parameters of mercury and TSS. At the same time, pH was measured in the field. Furthermore, from the survey results, it was found that the use of mercury was ±150-250 mL at each gold processing location. The results showed that all samples from wastewater (tailings), groundwater and river water were contaminated with mercury with levels exceeding the acceptable quality standards. Furthermore, the status of water quality using the Pollution Index (IP) method shows that wastewater is light to moderately polluted, groundwater is lightly polluted, and river water is also lightly to moderately polluted.

Author Biographies

Kevin Philips Barakati, Master of Environmental Management, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Master of Environmental Management, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Teknika Utara, Sleman, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, 55281

Tjahyo Nugroho Adji, Faculty of Geography, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Faculty of Geography, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Sleman, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, 55281

Noorhadi Rahardjo, Faculty of Geography, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Faculty of Geography, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Sleman, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, 55281

References

APHA. 1998. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste Water. APHA, Washington DC, USA.

Badan Standardisasi Nasional. 2008. SNI 6989-59-2008 concerning water and wastewater-Section 59: Methods of sampling wastewater. BSN. Jakarta (in Indonesian).

Barakati, K.P. 2022. Study of groundwater and river water pollution due to mercury amalgamation waste (Hgâº) due to gold processing activities in Ltung District, Sumbawa Regency, West Nusa Tenggara Province. Master Thesis. Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta (in Indonesian).

Basu, N., Abass, K., Dietz, R., Krümmel, E., Rautio, A. and Weihe, P. 2022. The impact of mercury contamination on human health in the Arctic: a state of the science review. Science of the Total Environment 31:154793, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.154793.

Belle, G., Fossey, A., Esterhuizen, L. and Moodley, R. 2021. Contamination of groundwater by potential harmful elements from gold mine tailings and the implications to human health: a case study in Welkom and Virginia, Free State Province, South Africa. Groundwater Sustainable Development 12, doi:10.1016/j.gsd.2020.100507.

Boszke, L., Głosińska, G. and Siepak, J. 2002. Some aspects of speciation of mercury in a water environment. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 11(4):285-298.

Brooks, W., Öztürk, H. and Cansu, Z. 2017. Amalgamation and small-scale gold mining at Ancient Sardis, Turkey. Archaeological Discovery 5:42-59, doi:10.4236/ad.2017.51003.

de Ruijter, F.J., Serhalawan, F., Serhalawan, R., Ranteg-Oversteeg, R., Yani, A., Kusnayadi, H., Maryam, A. and Sudirman, S. 2011. Intercropping jatropha in Sumbawa : baseline study. (Report/Plant Research International; No. 413). Plant Research International. https://edepot.wur.nl/290557.

Esdaile, L.J. and Chalker, J.M. 2018. The mercury problem in artisanal and small-scale gold mining. Chemistry–a European Journal 24(27):6905-6916, doi:10.1002/chem.201704840.

Government Regulation Number 22. 2021. Implementation of Environmental Protection and Management. State Secretariat, Jakarta (in Indonesian).

Governor of Nusa Tenggara Barat Regulation (No). 18. 2016. Regional action plan for mercury reduction and elimination (in Indonesian).

Johari, H.I., Rahmawati, D. and Hidayati. 2016. Mercury Contamination in groundwater from artisanal and small scale gold mining activities: a case study of southern Lombok Coast, West Nusa Tenggara Province. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 413:012016, doi:10.1088/1755-1315/413/1/012016.

Krisnayanti, B.D. 2018. ASGM status in West Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 5(2):1077-1084, doi:10.1088/1755-1315/413/1/012016.

Krisnayanti, B.D., Anderson, C.W.N. Utomo, W.H., Feng, X., Handayanto, E., Mudarisna, N., Ikram, H. and Khususiah. 2012. Assessment of environmental mercury discharge at a four-year-old artisanal gold mining area on Lombok Island, Indonesia. Journal Environmental Monitoring 14:2598-2607, doi:10.1039/c2em30515a.

Krisnayanti, B.D., Vasurra I., Asmara, M.D., Ekawanti, A. and Suheri, H. 2016. Analysis of artisanal small-scale gold mining sector in West Sumbawa Regency, Indonesia. Journal of Health and Pollution 6(1):26-33, doi:10.5696/2156-9614-6.12.26.

Law Number (No). 32. 2009. Protection and management of the environment (Undang-undang Nomor 32 Tahun 2009 tentang Perlindungan dan Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup). Sekretariat Negara, Jakarta. https://jdih.esdm.go.id/storage/document/UU%2032%20Tahun%202009%20(PPLH).pdf (in Indonesian).

Minister of Health Regulations (No). 32. 2017. Environmental Health Quality Standards and Water Health Requirements for Sanitation Hygiene Purposes. Jakarta. http://hukor.kemkes.go.id/uploads/produk_hukum/PMK_No._32_ttg_Standar_Baku_Mutu_Kesehatan_Air_Keperluan_Sanitasi,_Kolam_Renang,_Solus_Per_Aqua_.pdf (in Indonesian).

Minister of State for the Environment Decree (No). 115. 2003. Guidelines for Determining Water Quality Status Jakarta. https://www.regulasip.id/book/10016/read (in Indonesian).

Minister of State for the Environment Decree (No). 202. 2004. Wastewater Quality Standards for Gold and or Copper Ore Mining Businesses and Activities. Jakarta. https://luk.staff.ugm.ac.id/atur/sda/KepmenLH202-2004BMALEmasTembaga.pdf (in Indonesian).

Pokorny, B., von Lübke, C., Dayamba, S.D. and Dickow, H. 2019. All the gold for nothing? Impacts of mining on rural livelihoods in Northern Burkina Faso. World Development 119:23-39, doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2019.03.003.

Soe, P.S., Kyaw, W.T., Arizono, K., Ishibashi, Y. and Agusa, T. 2022. Mercury Pollution from Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Myanmar and Other Southeast Asian Countries. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(10), 6290, doi:10.3390/ijerph19106290.

Sudrajat, A.S. 1998. Geological map sheet of Sumbawa, Nusa Tenggara. Geological Research and Development Center, Bandung (in Indonesian).

Susanti, T., Utami, W., Hidayat and Amimi, D. 2018. The negative impact of ilegal gold mining on the environmental sector in Batang Asai, Jambi. Journal of Environmental and Sustainibility 2(3):128-143, doi:10.22515/sustinere.jes.v2i3.43.

Veiga, M.M., Maxson, P.A. and Hylander, L.D. 2006. Origin and consumption of mercury in small-scale gold mining. Journal of Cleaner Production 14: 436-447, doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2004.08.010.

Worlanyo, A.S. and Jiangfeng, L. 2021. Evaluating the environmental and economic impact of mining for post-mined land restoration and land-use: a review. Journal of Environmental Management 279:111623, doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.111623.

Downloads

Submitted

26-11-2022

Accepted

06-01-2023

Published

01-04-2023

How to Cite

Barakati, K. P., Adji, T. N., & Rahardjo, N. (2023). Status of groundwater and river water quality around the location of illegal gold mining activities in Lantung District, Sumbawa. Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management, 10(3), 4433–4443. https://doi.org/10.15243/jdmlm.2023.103.4433

Issue

Section

Research Article