The quality of acid soils treated with seaweed (Kappapychus alvarezii) sap enriched biochar from Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia


  • Laode Muhammad Harjoni Kilowasid Department of Agrotechnology, Halu Oleo University
  • Dwita Siniona Manik Department of Agrotechnology, Halu Oleo University
  • Nevianti Nevianti Department of Agrotechnology, Halu Oleo University
  • Gusti Arya Komang Department of Agrotechnology, Halu Oleo University
  • Puja Mutmainna Department of Agrotechnology, Halu Oleo University
  • La Ode Afa Department of Agrotechnology, Halu Oleo University
  • Tresjia Corina Rakian Department of Agrotechnology, Halu Oleo University
  • Waode Siti Anima Hisein Department of Plant Protection, Halu Oleo University
  • La Ode Ahmad Nur Ramadhan Department of Chemistry, Halu Oleo University
  • Syamsu Alam Department of Soil Science, Halu Oleo University



acid soils, biochar, functional group, seaweed, soil fertility


Biochar enriched with fertilizers has the potential to improve the quality of acid soils. In the agricultural sector, it was reported that the sap of Kappapychus alvarezii (K-sap) is often used as a biofertilizer. Therefore, this study aimed to (i) examine the character of biochar enriched with the K-sap and (ii) analyze the soil quality after incubation. This study was carried out using two treatment factors arranged in a randomized block design, namely the biochar dose at 0%, 2.5%, 5.0%, and 7.5% in weight and K-sap at concentrations of 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%.  Ten kilograms of acid soil were incubated with K-sap enriched biochar for up to 2 weeks in each experimental pot. The results showed that the absorption band increased with the K-sap concentration for the functional group associated with the OH-stretching of the biochar enriched with K-sap was stronger and wider than the unenriched. The peak elevation pattern detected by X-ray diffraction for all biochars was similar. The dosage of 7.5% biochar enriched with 5%-10% K-sap concentrations increased pH, EC, organic C, total N, C:N ratio, available P, and exchangeable K, Ca, Mg, and Si than those without treatment. Furthermore, ammonium and total spores of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi decreased, flagellates increased with and without the biochar, while the nitrate, total bacteria, and fungi of all treatments were similar. Based on these results, it was concluded that biochar enriched with K-sap could improve the quality of acid soil.


Adeniyi, A.G., Ighalo, J.O. and Onifade, D.V. 2020. Biochar from the thermochemical conversion of orange (Citrus sinensis) peel and Albedo: product quality and potential applications. Chemistry Africa 3(2): 439–448,

Aggegnehu, G., Amede, T., Erkossa, T., Yirga, C., Henry, C., Tyler, R., Nosworthy, M.G., Beyene, S. and Sileshi, G.W. 2021. Extent and management of acid soils for sustainable production system in the tropical agroecosystems: a review. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B-Soil & Plant Science 71(9): 852-869,

Aslan, L.O.M., Embi, A. La, Hasriah, R., Ansa, A., Iba, W., Patadjai, A. B. and Rahim, M. 2021. Grafting of the seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales) in SEâ€Sulawesi, Indonesia. Aquaculture Research 52(3): 1327–1331,

Ayaz, M., FeizienÄ—, D., TilvikienÄ—, V., Akhtar, K., StulpinaitÄ—, U. and Iqbal, R. 2021. Biochar role in the sustainability of agriculture and environment. Sustainability 13(3): 1330,

Baskararaj, S., Theivendren, P., Palanisamy, P., Kannan, S., Pavadai, P., Arunachalam, S., Sankaranarayanan, M., Mohan, U.P., Ramasamy, L. and Kunjiappan, S. 2019. Optimization of bioactive compounds extraction assisted by microwave parameters from Kappaphycus alvarezii using RSM and ANFIS modeling. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization 13(4): 2773–2789,

Bélanger, N., MacDonald, J.D., Paré, D., Thiffault, E., Claveau, Y. and Hendershot, W.H. 2006. Determination of exchangeable hydrogen ions in boreal shield soils of Quebec. Canadian Journal of Soil Sci 86: 513-521,

Bhuyar, P., Sundararaju, S., Rahim, M.H.A., Unpaprom, Y., Maniam, G.P. and Govindan, N. 2021. Antioxidative study of polysaccharides extracted from red (Kappaphycus alvarezii), green (Kappaphycus striatus) and brown (Padina gymnospora) marine macroalgae/seaweed. SN Applied Sciences 3(4): 1–9,

Bünemann, E.K., Bongiorno, G., Bai, Z., Creamer, R.E., De Deyn, G., de Goede, R., Fleskens, L., Geissen, V., Kuyper, T.W. and Mäder, P. 2018. Soil quality–A critical review. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 120: 105–125,

Chen, X., Lin, Q., Rizwan, M., Zhao, X. and Li, G. 2019. Steam explosion of crop straws improves the characteristics of biochar as a soil amendment. Journal of Integrative Agriculture 18(7):1486–1495,

Cybulak, M., Sokołowska, Z. and Boguta, P. 2021. The influence of biochar on the content of carbon and the chemical transformations of fallow and grassland humic acids. Scientific Reports 11(1):1–14,

El-Naggar, A., Lee, S.S., Rinklebe, J., Farooq, M., Song, H., Sarmah, A.K., Zimmerman, A.R., Ahmad, M., Shaheen, S.M. and Ok, Y.S. 2019. Biochar application to low fertility soils: A review of current status, and future prospects. Geoderma 337: 536–554,

Gafur, S. and Umran, I. 2019. Upland rice growth after low-input amendments on upland soil in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Journal of Tropical Soils 24(3): 119–128,

Greger, M., Landberg, T. and Vaculík, M. 2018. Silicon influences soil availability and accumulation of mineral nutrients in various plant species. Plants 7 (41): 1–16, doi:10.3390/plants7020041.

Hagemann, N., Joseph, S., Schmidt, H.-P., Kammann, C. I., Harter, J., Borch, T., Young, R.B., Varga, K., Taherymoosavi, S. and Elliott, K.W. 2017. Organic coating on biochar explains its nutrient retention and stimulation of soil fertility. Nature Communications 8(1): 1–11,

Han, X., Xu, C., Wang, Y., Huang, D., Fan, Q., Xin, G. and Müller, C. 2019. Dynamics of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in relation to root colonization, spore density, and soil properties among different spreading stages of the exotic plant three flower beggarweed (Desmodium triflorum) in a Zoysia tenuifolia lawn. Weed Science 67(6): 689–701,

Hegde, R., Burla, S., Gupta, S. and Dajam, A. 2021. Seaweed extract coated fertilizer for better crops and soil health. Google Patents.

Holatko, J., Hammerschmiedt, T., Kintl, A., Danish, S., Skarpa, P., Latal, O., Baltazar, T., Fahad, S., Akça, H. and Taban, S. 2021. Effect of carbon-enriched digestate on the microbial soil activity. Plos One 16(7): e0252262, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0252262.

Hossain, M.Z., Bahar, M.M., Sarkar, B., Donne, S.W., Ok, Y.S., Palansooriya, K.N., Kirkham, M.B., Chowdhury, S. and Bolan, N. 2020. Biochar and its importance on nutrient dynamics in soil and plant. Biochar 2: 379–420,

Hussain, H.I., Kasinadhuni, N. and Arioli, T. 2021. The effect of seaweed extract on tomato plant growth, productivity and soil. Journal of Applied Phycology 33(2): 1305–1314,

Ibrahimi, K., Attia, K. Ben, Amami, R., Américo-Pinheiro, J.H.P. and Sher, F. 2022. Assessment of three decades treated wastewater impact on soil quality in semi-arid agroecosystem. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences,

Kilowasid, L.M.H., Sanjaya, M.F., Sabaruddin, L., Hasid, R., Sulaeman, D. and Nurmas, A. 2021. The use of soil biostructures created by soil fauna ecosystem engineers fed with different organic materials as inoculum source of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi on cocoa seedling. SAINS TANAH-Journal of Soil Science and Agroclimatology 18(2): 166–176,

Kilowasid, L.M.H., Syamsudin, T.S., Sulystiawati, E. and Susilo, F.-X. 2014. Structure of soil food web in smallholder cocoa plantation, South Konawe district, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Agrivita 36(1): 33-47,

Kocsis, T., Kotroczó, Z., Kardos, L. and Biró, B. 2020. Optimization of increasing biochar doses with soil-plant-microbial functioning and nutrient uptake of maize. Environmental Technology & Innovation 20:101191,

Krauss, M., Berner, A., Perrochet, F., Frei, R., Niggli, U. and Mäder, P. 2020. Enhanced soil quality with reduced tillage and solid manures in organic farming–a synthesis of 15 years. Scientific Reports 10(1): 1–12,

Li, Y., Wu, J., Shen, J., Liu, S., Wang, C., Chen, D., Huang, T. and Zhang, J. 2016. Soil microbial C: N ratio is a robust indicator of soil productivity for paddy fields. Scientific Reports 6(1): 1–8,

Lin, C., Wang, Y., Liu, M., Li, Q., Xiao, W. and Song, X. 2020. Effects of nitrogen deposition and phosphorus addition on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata). Scientific Reports, 10(1): 1–8,

Liu, X., Liao, J., Song, H., Yang, Y., Guan, C. and Zhang, Z. 2019. A biochar-based route for environmentally friendly controlled release of nitrogen: urea-loaded biochar and bentonite composite. Scientific Reports 9: 9548,

Mantri, V.A., Eswaran, K., Shanmugam, M., Ganesan, M., Veeragurunathan, V., Thiruppathi, S., Reddy, C.R.K. and Seth, A. 2017. An appraisal on commercial farming of Kappaphycus alvarezii in India: success in diversification of livelihood and prospects. Journal of Applied Phycology 29(1):335–357,

Ndoung, O.C.N., de Figueiredo, C.C. and Ramos, M. L.G. 2021. A scoping review on biochar-based fertilizers: enrichment techniques and agro-environmental application. Heliyon 7(12):e08473,

Ngoc Nguyen, M., Dultz, S. and Guggenberger, G. 2014. Effects of pretreatment and solution chemistry on solubility of riceâ€straw phytoliths. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 177(3):49–359,

Nguemezi, C., Tematio, P., Yemefack, M., Tsozue, D. and Silatsa, T.B.F. 2020. Soil quality and soil fertility status in major soil groups at the Tombel area, South-West Cameroon. Heliyon 6(2):e03432,

Pang, Z., Zhao, Y., Xu, P. and Yu, D. 2020. Microbial diversity of upland rice roots and their influence on rice growth and drought tolerance. Microorganisms 8(9):1329,

Peng, J., Han, X., Li, N., Chen, K., Yang, J., Zhan, X., Luo, P. and Liu, N. 2021. Combined application of biochar with fertilizer promotes nitrogen uptake in maize by increasing nitrogen retention in soil. Biochar 3(3): 367–379,

Perera, K.Y., Sharma, S., Pradhan, D., Jaiswal, A.K. and Jaiswal, S. 2021. Seaweed polysaccharide in food contact materials (active packaging, intelligent packaging, edible films, and coatings). Foods 10(9): 2088,

Pramanick, B., Brahmachari, K., Kar, S. and Mahapatra, B.S. 2020. Can foliar application of seaweed sap improve the quality of rice grown under rice–potato–green gram crop sequence with better efficiency of the system? Journal of Applied Phycology 32(5):3377–3386,

Purwanto, B.H. and Alam, S. 2020. Impact of intensive agricultural management on carbon and nitrogen dynamics in the humid tropics. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 66(1):50–59,

Salamon, J., Wissuwa, J., Frank, T., Scheu, S. and Potapov, A.M. 2020. Trophic level and basal resource use of soil animals are hardly affected by local plant associations in abandoned arable land. Ecology and Evolution 10(15): 8279–8288,

Shah, M.T., Zadope, S.T., Chaudhary, D.R., Eswaran, K. and Chikara, J. 2013. Seaweed sap as an alternative liquid fertilizer for yield and quality improvement of wheat. Journal of Plant Nutrition 36:192-200,

Shahid, S.A., Zaman, M. and Heng, L. 2018. Introduction to soil salinity, sodicity and diagnostics techniques. Guideline for Salinity Assessment, Mitigation and Adaptation Using Nuclear and Related Techniques (pp. 1–42). Springer.

Singh, S., Singh, M.K., Pal, S.K., Trivedi, K., Yesuraj, D., Singh, C.S., Anand, K.G.V., Chandramohan, M., Patidar, R., Kubavat, D., Zadope, S.T. and Ghosh, A. 2016. Sustainable enhancement in yield and quality of rain-fed maize through Gracilaria edulis and Kappapychus alvarezii seaweed sap. Journal of Applied Phycology 28:2099-2112,

Sivakumar, N. 2013. Effect of edaphic factors and seasonal variation on spore density and root colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in sugarcane fields. Annals of Microbiology 63(1): 151–160,

Soil Survey Staff. 2014. Keys to Soil Taxonomy. Twelfth Edition, Natural Resources Conservation Services-United States Department of Agriculture, Washington DC.

Sudhakar, M.P., Magesh Peter, D. and Dharani, G. 2021. Studies on the development and characterization of bioplastic film from the red seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii). Environmental Science and Pollution Research 28(26):33899–33913,

Syaf, H., Pattah, M.A. and Kilowasid, L.M.H. 2021. Quality of soil from the nickel mining area of Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia, engineered using earthworms (Pheretima sp.). Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 8(4): 2995- 3005,

Tian, X., Li, Z., Wang, Y., Li, B. and Wang, L. 2021. Evaluation on soil fertility quality under biochar combined with nitrogen reduction. Scientific Reports 11(1):1–11,

Vieira, F. C. S. and Nahas, E. 2005. Comparison of microbial numbers in soils by using various culture media and temperatures. Microbiological Research 160(2):197–202, DOI:10.1016/j.micres.2005.01.004.

Wang, S., Hu, Y., Wang, Q., Xu, S., Lin, X., Ji, H. and Zhang, Z. 2016. TG–FTIR–MS analysis of the pyrolysis of blended seaweed and rice husk. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 126(3): 1689–1702,

Winarso, S., Mandala, M., Sulistiyowati, H., Romadhona, S., Hermiyanto, B. and Subchan, W. 2020. The decomposition and efficiency of NPK-enriched biochar addition on Ultisols with soybean. Sains Tanah-Journal of Soil Science and Agroclimatology 17(1): 35–41,

Wu, S., Zhang, Y., Tan, Q., Sun, X., Wei, W. and Hu, C. 2020. Biochar is superior to lime in improving acidic soil properties and fruit quality of Satsuma mandarin. Science of the Total Environment 714: 136722,

Yu, Z., Liang, K., Wang, X., Huang, G., Lin, M., Zhou, Z. and Chen, Y. 2021. Alterations in arbuscular mycorrhizal community along a chronosequence of teak (Tectona grandis) plantations in tropical forests of China. Frontiers in Microbiology 12,

Zhang, K., Sun, P., Faye, M.C.A.S. and Zhang, Y. 2018. Characterization of biochar derived from rice husks and its potential in chlorobenzene degradation. Carbon 130: 730–740,








How to Cite

Kilowasid, L. M. H., Manik, D. S., Nevianti, N., Komang, G. A., Mutmainna, P., Afa, L. O., Rakian, T. C., Hisein, W. S. A., Ramadhan, L. O. A. N., & Alam, S. (2023). The quality of acid soils treated with seaweed (Kappapychus alvarezii) sap enriched biochar from Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management, 10(2), 4255–4269.



Research Article

Most read articles by the same author(s)