Reallocation of the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides to increase the income of vegetable farmers and prevent land degradation


  • Agnes Quartina Pudjiastuti Agricultural Economics Study Program, Postgraduate School, Tribhuwana Tungga Dewi University, Jl. Telaga Warna, Tlogomas Malang 65144
  • David Kaluge Management Study Program, Faculty of Economics and Business, Brawijaya University, Jl. Veteran Malang 65145
  • Widowati Widowati Agrotechnology Study Program, Faculty of Agriculture, Tribhuwana Tungga Dewi University, Jl. Telaga Warna, Tlogomas Malang 65144



efficiency, land degradation, production function, vegetable farmers


The study, which aimed to analyze the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides using the Cobb-Douglas production function approach and their reallocation to increase the income of vegetable farmers and prevent land degradation, was conducted in Sumberejo Village, Batu City, Indonesia. Data were collected from 138 pakcoy (Brassica rapa), celery (Apium graveolens), and red chili (Capsicum annuum) farmers through interviews using a questionnaire. The relationship between input and output was analyzed by regression with the Cobb-Douglas production function. Data validity, reliability, and classical assumption tests were performed to ensure the goodness of fit regression model. Furthermore, the F test and t-test were applied to analyze production response to chemical fertilizers and pesticides. This study revealed that the modeled regression equation is appropriate, where R2 = 0.827-0.933. Vegetable production gives a different response to the use of chemical fertilizers (TSP, Urea, and NPK) and pesticides. Increasing this chemical in pakcoy and celery farming is possible, but it needs to be considered because it has no significant effect on increasing production. The productivity of these two types of plants is relatively high. Farmers need to compare the costs of adding these inputs to additional income and the possibility of land degradation. Chemical fertilizers and pesticides have been excessive in red chili farming, so productivity is very low. There are indications that the land has been degraded, but to be sure, a study is needed on the chemical content of the vegetable fields in Sumberejo Village and the optimal use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides.


Adzawla, W. and Alhassan, H. 2021. Effects of climate adaptation on technical efficiency of maize production in Northern Ghana. Agricultural and Food Economics 9(1):1-18, doi:10.1186/s40100-021-00183-7.

Ambarwulan, W., Nahib, I., Widiatmaka, W., Suryanta, J., Munajati, S.L., Suwarno, Y., Turmudi, T., Darmawan, M. and Sutrisno, D. 2021. Using Geographic Information Systems and the Analytical Hierarchy Process for delineating erosion-induced land degradation in the middle Citarum Sub Watershed, Indonesia. Frontiers in Environmental Science 9:710570, doi:10.3389/fenvs.2021.710570.

Bahta, Y. and Owusu-Sekyere, E. 2019. Improving the income status of smallholder vegetable farmers through a homestead food garden intervention. Outlook on Agriculture 48(3):246-254, doi:10.1177/00307270 19852107.

Bhupenchandra, I., Chongtham, S.K., Anjali Basumatary, A., Singh, A.H., Das, A., Choudhary, A.K., Kamei, G., Sinyorita, S., Singh, L.K Devi, E.L., Devi, C.P. and Harish, M.N. 2022. Changes in soil properties, productivity and profitability as influenced by the adoption of site-specific integrated crop management technology in turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) in Eastern Himalayan acidic Inceptisol. Industrial Crops and Products 180:114745, doi:10.1016/ j.indcrop.2022.114745.

Hidayatullah, M.F. and Afkar, F.I. 3023. downloaded on Monday, July 3, 2023.

Izekor, O. and Alufohai, G. 2014. Production elasticities, return to scale, and allocative efficiency in yam production in Edo State, Nigeria. Agrosearch 14(2):179-190, doi:10.4314/agrosh.v14i2.8.

Jabbar, M.A. 1977. Management and returns to scale in agriculture. Oxford Agrarian Studies 6:157-164.

Jaya, I.K.D., Nurrachman, and Jayaputra. 2014. The potential of intercropping food crops and energy crops to improve the productivity of degraded agricultural land in arid tropics. Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 1(3):111-116, doi:10.15243/jdmlm.2014. 013.111.

Joko, T., Anggoro, S., Sunoko, H.R. and Rachmawati, S. 2017. Pesticides usage in the soil quality degradation potential in Wanasari Subdistrict, Brebes, Indonesia. Applied and Environmental Soil Science 2017, Article ID 5896191, 7 pages, doi:10.1155/2017/5896191.

Jolex, A. 2022. Influence of agricultural extension services on technical efficiency of maize farmers in Malawi. African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 17 (1):92-105, doi:10.53936/ afjare.2022.17(1).6.

Josephson, A. and Ricker-Gilbert, J. 2020. Preferences and crop choice during Zimbabwe’s macroeconomic crisis. African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 15 (3):260-287.

Karimov, A.A. 2014. Factors affecting the efficiency of cotton producers in rural Khorezm, Uzbekistan: Re-examining the role of knowledge indicators in technical efficiency improvement. Agricultural and Food Economics 2(1):1-16.

Khatri, R.T., Mistry, H.H. and Patel, K.S. 2011. Resource use efficiency of important vegetables in Chorayasi taluka of south Gujarat. International Research Journal of Agricultural Economics and Statistics 2(1):42-45.

Lestariningsih, I.D., Widianto, Agustina, C., Sudarto, and Kurniawan, S. 2018. Relationship between land degradation, biophysical and social factors in Lekso Watershed, East Java, Indonesia. Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 5(3):1283-1291, doi:10.15243/jdmlm.2018.053.1283.

Maftu’ah, E., Ma’as, A. and Purwanto, B.H. 2014. N, P, and K storage efficiency on degraded peat soil through ameliorant application. Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 1(4):187-196, doi:10.15243/jdmlm.2014.014.187.

Mariyono, J. 2017. Profitability and determinants of smallholder commercial vegetable production. International Journal of Vegetable Science 24 (3):274-288, doi:10.1080/19315260.2017.1413698.

Mgomezulu, W.R., Machira, K., Edriss, A.K., Pangapanga-Phiri, I. and Chitete, M.M.N. 2022. Responding to inefficiencies on smallholder maize farms : Can sustained adoption of sustainable agricultural practices make a difference ? African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 17(4):313-329, doi:10.53936/ afjare.2022.17(4).21.

Missiame, A., Irungu, P. and Nyikal, R.A. 2021. Gender-differentiated stochastic meta-frontier analysis of production technology heterogeneity among smallholder cassava farmers in Ghana. African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 16(2):140-154, doi:10.53936/afjare.2021.16(2).10.

Okello, D.M., Bonabana-Wabbi, J. and Mugonola, B. 2019. Farm level allocative efficiency of rice production in Gulu and Amuru districts, Northern Uganda. Agricultural and Food Economics 7(1):1-19, doi:10.1186/s40100-019-0140-x.

Pudjiastuti, A.Q. and Kembauw, E. 2018. Sugar price policy and Indonesia’s trade balance. Journal of Advanced Research in Law and Economics 8(8):2540-2548, doi:10.14505/jarle.

Rahaman, A.A. and Abdulai, A. 2022. Mobile money adoption, input use, and farm output among smallholder rice farmers in Ghana. Agribusiness 38 (2020):236-255, doi:10.1002/agr.21721.

Rajendran, S., Afari-Sefa, V., Karanja, D.K., Musebe, R., Romney, D., Makaranga, M.A., Samali, S. and Kessy, R.F. 2015. Technical efficiency of traditional African vegetable production: A case study of smallholders in Tanzania. Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics 7(3):92-99, doi:10.5897/JDAE2014.0606.

Rijal, U.K. and Bhatta, S. 2022. An analysis of resource use efficiency of vegetable growers in Chitwan District of Nepal. Nepalese Journal of Agricultural Sciences 23 (2022):130-139.

Schreinemachers, P., Sequeros, T. and Lukumay, P.J. 2017. International research on vegetable improvement in East and Southern Africa: Adoption, impact, and returns. Agricultural Economics 48(6):707-717, doi:10.1111/agec.12368.

Schreinemachers, P., Simmons, E.B. and Wopereis, M.C.S. 2018. Tapping the economic and nutritional power of vegetables. Global Food Security 16(2018):36-45, doi:10.1016/j.gfs.2017.09.005.

Shrestha, R.B., Bhandari, H. and Pandey, S. 2022. Profit efficiency of smallholder vegetable farms in Nepal: Implications for improving household income. Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems 5(2022):1-12, doi:10.3389/fsufs.2021.691350.

Sitorus, S.R.P. and Pravitasari, A.E. 2017. Land Degradation and Landslide in Indonesia. Sumatra Journal of Disaster, Geography and Geography Education 1(2):61-71.

Soil Survey Staff. 2014. Keys to Soil Taxonomy. 12th edition. United States Departement of Agriculture. New York.

Subedi, M., Pandey, M., Ojha, R.K. and Acharya, B. 2020. Production economics and resource use efficiency of tomato under open field condition in Kapilvastu, Nepal. Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resources 3(1):282-289, doi:10.3126/janr.v3i1.27181.

Zhang, D., Saboor, A., Chen, W. and Rizwan, M. 2020. Measuring returns to scale among vegetable producers under technological change: An evidence from China. Journal of Applied and Pure Science 30(2):475-484, doi:10.36899/japs.2020.2.0042.








How to Cite

Pudjiastuti, A. Q., Kaluge, D., & Widowati, W. (2023). Reallocation of the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides to increase the income of vegetable farmers and prevent land degradation. Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management, 11(1), 5095–5103.



Research Article