Versatile synthesis of activated carbon from coconut shells: a method for cyanide adsorption in artisanal and small-scale gold mining wastewater
Keywords:cyanide, glass wool, traditional mining
AbstractOver the next years, Indonesiaâ€™s traditional gold mining technique (that employs mercury amalgamation) will be gradually replaced by cyanidation as a result of a Presidential Decree that has been recently issued. The cyanide-containing waste resulting from the processing tanks of this new method will be generally sedimented and flow directly into the surrounding small rivers. This study aimed to reduce the impact of cyanide contamination on the environment by using the simple activated carbon that can be produced by artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM). Water samples were taken from artificial wastewater as part of three replications. The highest recorded removal of cyanide from sewage was 98.43%, with an equilibrium reached at a fixed adsorbent dosage of 0.05 g over a contact time of 24 hours. Cyanide adsorption was also found to be pH-dependent, with the highest cyanide adsorption occurring at a pH of 8. The adsorption capacity for cyanide was estimated at 12.51 mg g-1 of the adsorbent, and it was considered to function based on a Langmuir isotherm model. The findings of this study confirm that the utilized glass wool in the assessed method can increase the yield of activated carbon, thereby offering a low-cost and effective adsorbent that can be used in order to remove cyanide from ASGM wastewater.
Al Ghouti, M.A. and Al Absi, R.S. 2020. Mechanistic understanding of the adsorption and thermodynamic aspects of cationic methylene blue dye onto cellulosic olive stones biomass from wastewater. Scientific Reports 10:15928, doi:10.1038/s41598-02 0-72996-3.
Anggraini, D., Soemarno, and Riniwati, H. 2019. The effect of traditional gold mining toward the socio-economic and environmental aspects in Sepauk District Sintang Regency. Indonesian Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development 10:51-57, doi:10.21776/ub.jpal.2019.010.01.09.
Ashtaputrey, S.D. and Ashtaputrey, P.D. 2016. Preparation and characterization of activated charcoal derived from orange peel. Journal of Advanced Chemical Sciences 2(3):360-362.
ASTM D2866 Standard Test Method for Total Ash Content of Activated Carbon. 2011. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA. doi:10.1520/D2866-11.
ASTM D2867 Standard Test Methods for Moisture in Activated Carbon. 2009. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA. doi:10.1520/D2867-09.
ASTM D3838 Standard Test Method for pH of Activated Carbon. 2011. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA. doi:10.1520/D3838-05R11.
Bansal, R.C. and Goyal, M. 2005. Activation Carbon Adsorption, CRC Press, Boca Raton, doi:10.1201/9781420028812.
Basir-Cyio, M., Isrun-Baso, M., Nakazawa, K., Mahfudz-Muchtar, T., Napitupulu, M., Anshary, A., Rauf, R.A. and Laude, S. 2020. The effect of traditional gold mining to land degradation, mercury contamination and decreasing of agricultural productivity. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science 26:612-621.
Bernal, V., Erto, A., Giraldo, L. and Moreno-PirajÃ¡n, J.C. 2017. Effect of solution ph on the adsorption of paracetamol on chemically modified activated carbons. Molecules 22:1-14, doi:10.3390/molecules22071032.
Bhandari, P.S. and Gogate, P.R. 2017. Kinetic and thermodynamic study of adsorptive removal of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate using adsorbent based on thermo-chemical activation of coconut shell, Journal of Molecular Liquids 252:495-505, doi:10.1016/j.molliq.2017.12.018.
Danish, M., Hashim, R., Ibrahim, M.M.N., Rafatullah, M., Ahmad, T. and Sulaiman, O. 2011. Characterization of Acacia mangium wood based activated carbons prepared in the presence of
basic activating agents. Bioresources 6(3):3019-3033.
De Gisi, S., Lofrano, G., Grassi, M. and Notarnicola, M. 2016. Characteristics and adsorption capacities of low-cost sorbents for wastewater treatment: A review. Sustainable Materials and Technologies 9:10-40, doi:10.1016/j.susmat.2016.06.002.
Eke-emezie, N.C. and Etuk, B.R. 2019. Cyanide adsorption from cassava wastewater onto calcined periwinkle shell. Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 7(1):1929-1934, doi:10.15243/jdmlm.2019.071.1929.
Efeovbokhan, V.E., Alagbe, E.E., Odika, B., Babalola, R., Oladimeji, T.E., Abatan, O.G. and Yusuf, E.O. 2019. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from plantain peel and coconut shell using biological activators. Journal of Physics: Conference Science 1378:032035, doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1378/3/032035.
Eletta, A., Ajayi, A., Ogunleye, O. and Akpan, C. 2016. Adsorption of cyanide from aqueous solution using calcinated eggshells: Equilibrium and optimization studies. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 4:1367-1375, doi:10.1016/j.jece.2016.01.020.
Esparza, M., Cueva, C., Pauker, S., Jentzsch, V. and Bisesti, M. 2019. Combined treatment using ozone for cyanide from wastewater: a comparison. Revista Internacional de Contaminacion Ambiental 35:459-467, doi:10.20937/RICA.2019.35.02.16.
Evbuomwan, B.O., Agbede, A.M. and Atuka, M.M. 2013. A comparative study of the physicochemical properties of activated carbon from oil palm waste (kernel shell and fibre). International Journal of Science and Engineering Investigations 2:75-79.
Fahmi, A.G., Abidin, Z., Kusmana, C. and Noor, E. 2021 Utilization of palm kernel meal (PKM) as activated charcoal to remove organic pollutants. Journal of Physics: Conference Science 1882:012117, doi:10.1088/1755-1315/399/1/012015.
Fahmi, A.G., Abidin, Z., Kusuma, C., Kharisma, D., Prajaputra, V. and Rahmawati, W.R. 2019. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from palm kernel shell at low temperature as an adsorbent for methylene blue. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 399:012015, doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1882/1/012117.
Gafur, N.A., Sakakibara, M., Komatsu, S., Sano, S. and Sera, K. 2022. Environmental survey of the distribution and metal contents of Pteris vittata in arsenic-lead-mercury-contaminated gold mining areas along the Bone River in Gorontalo Province, Indonesia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19:530, doi:10.3390/ijerph19010530.
Githiria, J.M. and Onifade, M. 2020. The impact of mining on sustainable practices and the traditional culture of developing countries. Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences 10:394-410, doi:10.1007/s13412-020-00613-w.
Han, K., Wang, Q., Zhao, J., Luo, K.H., Chen, Y. and Lu, C. 2016. Combustion pattern, characteristics, and kinetics of biomass and chars from segmented heating carbonization. Asia-Pacific Journal of Chemical Engineering 11:812-822, doi:10.1002/apj.2016.
Hou, D., Liu, L., Yang, Q., Zhang, B., Qiu, H., Ruan, S., Chen, Y. and Li, H. 2020. Decomposition of cyanide from gold leaching tailings by using sodium metabisulphite and hydrogen peroxide. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering 2020:1-7, doi:10.1155/2020/5640963.
Istratie, R., Stoia, M., PÄƒcurariu, C. and Locovei, C. 2019. Single and simultaneous adsorption of methyl orange and phenol onto magnetic iron oxide/carbon nanocomposites. Arabian Journal of Chemistry 12:3704-3722, doi:10.1016/j.arabjc.2015.12.012.
Jaszczak, E.. Polkowska, Z.: Narkowicz, S. and NamieÅ›nik, J. 2017. Cyanides in the environment-analysis-problems and challenges. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International 24:15929-15948, doi:10.1007/s11356-017-9081-7.
Jeon, C., Lee, J., Chung, H., Kim, J. and Park J. 2017. A study on insulating characteristics of glass wool and mineral wool coated with a polysiloxane agent. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering 3938965:1-6, doi:10.1155/2017/3938965.
Jiao, C.Y., Wan, C. and Li, J. 2016. Synthesis of carbon fiber aerogel from natural bamboo fiber and its application as green high-efficiency and recyclable adsorbent. Materials and Design 107:26-32, doi:10.1016/j.matdes.2016.06.015.
Johnson, A. 2015. The fate of cyanide in leach wastes at gold mines: an environmental perspective. Applied Geochemistry. 57:194-205, doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2014.05.023.
Knoblauch, A.M., Farnham, A., Ouoba, J., Zanetti, J., MÃ¼ller, S., Jean-Richard, V., Utzinger, J., Wehrli, B., Brugger, F., Diagbouga, S. and Winkler, M.S. 2020. Potential health effects of cyanide use in artisanal and small-scale gold mining in Burkina Faso. Journal of Cleaner Production 252:11968, doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.119689.
Kubik, L. and Zeman, S. 2014. Determination of oxygen permeability and mechanical properties of the aluminium paper foil. Research in Agricultural Engineering 60(4):172-179, doi:10.17221/18/2013-RAE.
Li, X., Xiao, W., He, G., Zheng, W., Yu, N. and Tan, M. 2012. Pore size and surface area control of MgO nanostructures using a surfactant-templated hydrothermal process: High adsorption capability to azo dyes. Colloids and Surfaces. Part A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 408:79-86, doi:10.1016/j.colsurfa.2012.05.034.
Mariana, M., Mahidin, M., Maulana, F. and Aman, F. 2017. Utilization of Activated Carbon Prepared from Aceh Coffee Grounds as Bio-sorbent for Treatment of Fertilizer Industrial Waste Water. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 358:012027, doi:10.1088/1757-899X/358/012027.
Munera-Echeverri, J.L., Martinsen, V., Strand, L.T., Zivanovic, V., Cornelissen, G. and Mulder, J. 2018. Cation exchange capacity of biochar: an urgent method modification. Science of the Total Environment 642:190-197, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.06.017.
Muslihudin, M., Bambang, A.N., Hendarto, E. and Putranto, T.T. 2018. The impact of traditional gold mining in Gumelar Banyumas, Indonesia. Ecology, Environment and Conservation 28:607-613.
Okeola, O.F., Odebunmi, E.O. and Ameen, O.M. 2012. Comparison of sorption capacity and surface area of activated carbon prepared from Jatropha curcas fruit pericarp and seed coat. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia 26:171-180, doi:10.4314/bcse.v26i2.2.
Park, S. 2018. Physico-chemical and anatomical properties of carbonized Indonesian bamboo and its appropriate utilization, IPB University, Bogor.
Park, S.B., Lee, S.M., Vetter, J.Y. and Lee, S.H. 2009. Manufacture of crack-free carbonized board from fiberbroad, Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology 37:293-299.
Prasetia, H., Sakakibara, M., Sera, K. and Laird, J.S. 2022. Evaluation of the total mercury weight exposure distribution using tree bark analysis in an artisanal and small-scale gold mining area, North Gorontalo Regency, Gorontalo Province, Indonesia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19:33, doi:10.3390/ijerph19010033.
Sivakumar, V., Asaithambi, M. and Sivakumar, P. 2012. Physico-chemical and adsorption studies of activated carbon from agricultural waste. Advances in Applied Science Research 3:219-226.
Soemarwoto, R. and Ellen, R.F. 2010. Gold mining and changing perceptions of risk in West Java. Human Organization 69:233-241, doi:10.17730/humo.69.3.gk887801m1476105.
Stavropoulos, G.G., Skodras, G.S. and Papadimitriou, K.G. 2013. Effect of solution chemistry on cyanide adsorption in activated carbon. Applied Thermal Engineering 74:183-184, doi:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2013.09.060.
Suhadi, S., Muliya, B.K. and Ashoffi, A.M. 2021. Pollution of mercury and cyanide soils and plants in surrounding in the artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) at Sekotong District, West Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara. Biological Environment and Pollution 1:30-37, doi:10.31763/bioenvipo.v1i1.392.
Sun, K., Leng, C., Jiang, J., Bu, Q., Lin, G., Lu, X. and Zhu, G. 2017. Microporous activated carbon from coconut shells produced by self-activation using the pyrolysis gases produced from them, that have an excellent electric double layer performance. New Carbon Materials 32:451-459, doi:10.1016/S1872-5805(17)60134-3.
Surleva, A., Zaharia, M., Ion, L., Gradinaru, R.V., Drochioiu, G. and Mangalagiu, I. 2013. Ninhydrin-based spectrophotometric assays of trace cyanide. Acta Chemica Iasi 21:57-70, doi:10.2478/achi-2013-0006.
Tabian, D., Bulgaru Iliescu, D., Diac, M.M., Badea, M., Toma, S.I. and Drochioiu, G. 2022. Evaluation of hydrogen cyanide in the blood of fire victims based on the kinetics of the reaction with ninhydrin. Applied Sciences 12:2329, doi:10.3390/app12052329.
Taux, K., Kraus, T. and Kaifie, A. 2022. Mercury exposure and its health effects in workers in the artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) sector-a systematic review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19:2081, doi:10.3390/ijerph19042081.
US EPA. 2020. Clarification of Free and Total Cyanide Analysis for Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Compliance, Environment Protection Agency: Washington.
Verbrugge, B., Lanzano, C. and Libassi, M. 2021. The cyanide revolution: efficiency gains and exclusion in artisanal and small-scale gold mining. Geoforum 126:267-276, doi:10.1016/j.geoforum.2021.07.030.
Xiao, F., Bedane, A.H., Zhao, J.X., Mann, M.D. and Pignatello, J.J. 2018. Thermal air oxidation changes surface and adsorptive properties of black carbon (char/biochar). Science of the Total Environment 618:276-283, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.11.008.
Yakout, S.M. and El-Deen, G.S. 2016. Characterization of activated carbon prepared by phosphoric acid activation of olive stones. Arabian Journal of Chemistry 9:S1155-S1162, doi:10.1016/j.arabjc.2011.12.002.
How to Cite
LicenseSubmission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, or thesis) that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that if and when the manuscript is accepted for publication, the authors agree to automatic transfer of the copyright to the publisher.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Scientific Journal by Eko Handayanto is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at http://www.ub.ac.id.
Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at http://www.ircmedmind.ub.ac.id.