Indexed By
SJR Rank

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Article Tools
Email this article (Login required)
Email the author (Login required)
About The Authors

Surya Damar Sasongko Putro
Teknik Geologi UGM

Wahyu Wilopo
Universitas Gadjah Mada

Author Guidelines

Visitor Statistic

Assessment of nitrate contamination and its factors in the urban area of Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Surya Damar Sasongko Putro, Wahyu Wilopo
  J. Degrade. Min. Land Manage. , pp. 3643-3652  
Viewed : 151 times


Population growth in urban areas increases rapidly due to improving economic conditions. However, this growth is not always followed by the addition of public facilities such as clean water facilities and sewage water system networks, especially in developing countries. There are still many people who use on-site sanitation systems that will cause groundwater pollution problems. In addition, many people in urban areas still depend on groundwater for drinking water. The quality of groundwater becomes an essential factor for this purpose. One of the common groundwater problems in urban areas is nitrate concentration. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the potential groundwater contamination, the primary source of nitrate contamination in groundwater, and their influencing factor in the study area. The research method used the Cl/NO3 ratio and Cl/Br ratio to determine the source of nitrate in the study area. The groundwater contamination potential was evaluated based on depth to the groundwater table, sorption capacity above the groundwater table, permeability, groundwater table gradient, and horizontal distance from the contaminant source. In addition, the total of family members, age of the settlement, the distance of the well from the septic tank, and groundwater table depth were correlated with nitrate concentration. The results showed that nitrate levels in the research area generally exceed the maximum drinking water limit by WHO, with the maximum concentration reaching 167 mg/L. The high concentration of nitrate in the groundwater is due to contamination. According to the diagrams of nitrate versus chloride and the Cl/Br ratio analysis, the primary source of groundwater nitrate contamination is a septic tank. The higher family member and age of the settlement have a positive correlation with increasing nitrate concentration. Besides, distance from the septic tank and depth of the groundwater table is negatively correlated with nitrate concentration.


contamination; groundwater; nitrate

Full Text:



BPS-Statistic of Yogyakarta Municipality. 2021. Yogyakarta Municipality in Figures 201. BPS-Statistic of Yogyakarta Municipality. p 393.

Chen, J., Wu, H. and Qian, H. 2016 Groundwater nitrate contamination and associated health risk for the rural communities in an agricultural area of Ningxia, northwest China. Expo Health 8:349-359, doi:10.1007/s12403-016-0208-8.

Davis, S.N., Whittemore, D.O. and Fabryka-Martin, J. 1998. Uses of chloride/bromide ratios in studies of potable water. Ground Water 36:338-350, doi:10.1111/j.1745-6584.1998.tb01099.x.

EPA. 2018. Edition of the Drinking Water Standards and Health Advisories Tables,

Fabro, A.Y.R., Avila, J.G.P., Alberich, M.V.E., Sansores, S.A.C. and Camargo-Valero, M.A. 2015. Spatial distribution of nitrate health risk associated with groundwater use as drinking water in Merida, Mexico. Applied Geography 65:49-57, doi:10.1016/j.apgeog.2015.10.004.

Fathmawati, F., Fachiroh, J., Sutomo, A.H. and Putra, D.P.E. 2018. Origin and distribution of nitrate in water well of settlement areas in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 190(11):628, doi:10.1007/s10661-018-6958-y.

Fetter, C.W. 2001. Applied Hydrogeology 4th edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc. p 621.

Google Earth. 2021. Images of Kraton Sub-District, Yogyakarta Special Province, Indonesia. Accessed on October 10, 2021.

GWMAP (Ground Water Monitoring and Assessment Program). 2000. Groundwater quality under three unsewered subdivisions in Minnesota, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, Groundwater and Toxics Monitoring Unit, Environmental Monitoring and Analysis Section, Environmental Outcomes Division, Minnesota, p 47.

Gulis, G., Czompolyova, M. and Cerhanw, J.R. 2002. An ecologic study of nitrate in municipal drinking water and cancer incidence in Trnava district Slovakia. Environmental Research 88(3):182-187, doi:10.1006/enrs.2002.4331.

Johnson, C.J., Bonrud, P.A., Dosch, T.L., Kilness, A.W., Senger, K.A., Busch, D.C. and Meyer, M.R. 1987. Fatal outcome of methemoglobinemia in an infant. Journal of the American Medical Association 257(20):2796-2797, PMID: 3573274.

Lasagna, M., De Luca, D.A. and Franchino, E. 2016. The role of physical and biological processes in aquifer and their importance on groundwater vulnerability to nitrate pollution. Environmental Earth Sciences 75:961, doi:10.1007/s12665-016-5768-1.

Lawrence, A.R., Macdonald, D.M.J, Howard, A.G., Barrett, M.H., Pedley, S., Ahmed, K.M. and Nalubega, M. 2001. Guidelines for Assessing the Risk to Groundwater from On-site Sanitation, British Geological Survey, Commissioned Report CR/01/142, p 97.

Le Grand, H.E. 1964. System for evaluation of contamination potential of some waste disposal sites. Journal of American Water Works Association 56:959-974, doi:10.1002/J.1551-8833.1964.TB01292.X.

Li, P., Wu, J., Qian, H., Zhang, Y., Yang, N., Jing, L. and Yu, P. 2016. Hydrogeochemical characterization of groundwater in and around a wastewater irrigated forest in the southeastern edge of the Tengger Desert, Northwest China. Exposure and Health 8:331-348, doi:10.1007/s12403-016-0193-y.

Manca, F., Capelli, G., La Vigna, F., Mazza, R. and Pascarella, A. 2014. Wind-induced salt-wedge intrusion in the Tiber river mouth (Rome–Central Italy). Environmental Earth Sciences 72:1083-1095, doi:10.1007/s12665-013-3024-5.

Nalbantcilar, M.T. and Pinarkara, S.Y. 2016. Public health risk assessment of groundwater contamination in Batman Turkey. Journal of Water and Health 14(4):650-661, doi:10.2166/wh.2016.290.

Pramugani, A., Soda, S. and Argo, T.A. 2020. Current situation of batik wastewater treatment in Pekalongan City, Indonesia. Journal of JSCE 8:188-193, doi:10.2208/journalofjsce.8.1_188.

Quamar. R., Jangam, C., Veligeti, J.P., Chintalapudi, P. and Janipella, R. 2017. Assessment of on-site sanitation system on local groundwater regime in an alluvial aquifer. Applied Water Science 7:4375-4386, doi:10.1007/s13201-017-0583-8.

Rahardjo, W., Sukandarrumidi, and Rosidi, H.M.D. 1995. Geological Map of Yogyakarta Sheet, Java. Geological Research and Development Centre. Bandung. Indonesia.

Rice, E.W., Baird, R.B. and Eaton, A.D. 2017. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 23rd Edition, American Water Works Association (AWWA).

Samantara, M.K., Padhi, R.K., Satpanthy, K.K., Sowmya, M. and Kumaran P. 2015. Groundwater nitrate contamination and use of Cl/Br ratio for source appointment. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 187(2):50, doi:10.1007/s10661-014-4211-x.

Putro, S.D.S. 2021. Hydrochemical Facies of Groundwater and Nitrate Sources in Kraton District, Yogyakarta City. Bachelor Report, Department of Geological Engineering, Gadjah Mada University. 169p (in Indonesian).

Shiklomanov, I.A. 1993. World Freshwater Resources. In Gleick, P.H. (Ed.). Water in Crisis: A Guide to the World's Fresh Water Resources. Oxford University Press. New York. p 473.

Smith, G.D., Wetselaar, R., Fox, J.J, Graaff, R.H.M, Moeljohardjo, D., Sarwono, J., Wiranto, Asj'ari, S.R., Tjojudo, S. and Basuki. 1999. The origin and distribution of nitrate in groundwater from village wells in Kotagede, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Hydrogeology Journal 7:576-589, doi:10.1007/s100400050230.

WHO. 2017. Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality. 4th edition. World Health Organization. Geneva. p 541.

Wilopo, W. and Putra, D.P.E. 2021. Groundwater fluctuation patterns and groundwater recharge estimation in unconfined aquifer of Yogyakarta City, Indonesia. Kuwait Journal of Science 48(2):1-11doi:10.48129/kjs.v4812.9397.

Wilopo, W., Putra D.P.E. and Hendrayana, H. 2021. Impacts of precipitation, land-use change and urban wastewater on groundwater level fluctuation in the Yogyakarta-Sleman Groundwater Basin, Indonesia. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 193(2):76, doi:10.1007/s10661-021-08863-z.

Wilopo, W. and Putra, D.P.E. 2020. Aquifer distribution and groundwater geochemistry in Bojonegoro Sub-district, Bojonegoro District, East Java Province, Indonesia. Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management 7(4):2327-2335, doi:10.15243/jdmlm.2020.074.2327.

Wu, J. and Sun, Z. 2015. Evaluation of shallow groundwater contamination and associated human health risk in an alluvial plain impacted by agricultural and industrial activities, mid-west China. Expo Health 8: 311-329, doi:10.1007/s12403-015-0170-x.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Indexed By